Animal wealth in India has increased manifold and the animal husbandry practices have changed to a great extent following the introduction of newer technologies particularly for crossbreeding and upgradation of indigenous breeds. More recently, with the liberalization of trade after the advent of WTO’s SPS agreement, the chances of ingress of exotic diseases in to the country have increased. For ensuring the maintenance of disease free status and to be compatible with the standards laid by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) - World Animal Health Organization, major health schemes have been initiated to support the animal health programmes in the states.
Further, in order to control the economically important livestock diseases and to undertake the obligatory functions related to animal health in the country, Central Government is implementing the following Schemes.
Livestock Health & Disease Control (LH & DC)
During 10th plan, a centrally sponsored macro-management scheme called “Livestock Health and Disease Control” is being implemented with an outlay of Rs. 525.00 crores. The Scheme has the following components.
(i) Assistance to States for Control of Animal Diseases (ASCAD)
Under this component, assistance is provided to State / Union Territory Governments for control of economically important diseases of livestock and poultry by way of immunization, strengthening of existing State Veterinary Biological Production Units, strengthening of existing State Disease Diagnostic Laboratories, holding workshops/seminars and in-service training to Veterinarians and Para-veterinarians. The programme is being implemented on 75:25 sharing basis between the centre and the states; however, 100 % assistance is provided for training and seminar/workshops. The states are at liberty to choose the diseases for immunization as per the prevalence and importance the disease in their state / region.
Besides this, the programmes envisage collection of information on the incidence of various livestock and poultry diseases from States and Union Territories and compile the same for the whole country. The 10th plan allocation for this scheme is Rs. 255.00 crores.
(ii) National Project on Rinderpest Eradication (NPRE)
The objective of the scheme is to strengthen the veterinary services and to eradicate Rinderpest and Contagious Bovine Pleuro - Pneumonia (CBPP) and to obtain freedom from Rinderpest & CBPP infection following the pathway prescribed by Office International des Epizooties (OIE), Paris.
The first stage of “Provisional freedom from Rinderpest disease” for the whole country was achieved with effect from 1st March 1998. The second stage of “Freedom from Rinderpest disease” for the country with zones was approved by OIE on 27-05-2004. For attaining the third and final stage of “Freedom from Rinderpest Infection”, the dossier has been submitted to OIE.
Eradication programme for Contagious Bovine Pleuro-pneumonia (CBPP) has been initiated in 8 districts of Assam. The country is provisionally free from CBPP from October 2003. The dossier for seeking the freedom from CBPP Infection has also been submitted to OIE. The 10th plan allocation for this component is Rs. 40.00 crores.
(iii) Foot & Mouth Disease Control Programme (FMD-CP)
To prevent economic losses due to FMD and to develop herd immunity in cloven-footed animals, Foot and Mouth Disease Control Programme (FMD-CP) is being implemented in 54 specified districts of the country in the first phase with 100% central funding as cost of vaccine, maintenance of cold chain and other logistic support to undertake vaccination. The State Governments are providing other infrastructure and manpower. Five rounds of vaccinations will be done during the tenth plan and allocation for this component is Rs. 200.00 crores. About 1500 lakh vaccination will be carried during the five rounds of vaccination.
(iv) Professional Efficiency Development (PED): -
The objective of this scheme is to regulate veterinary practice and to maintain register of veterinary practitioners as per the provisions of Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984 (IVC Act). The scheme envisages establishing Veterinary Council of India at the Centre and the State Veterinary Councils in those states, which adopted the Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984. At present it is implemented in all the States and Union Territories except Jammu and Kashmir. 100 % Central Assistance is provide to the VCI and the Union Territories and 50 % to the states. The 10th plan allocation for this component is Rs. 30.00 crores.
Directorate of Animal Health
This is a Central Sector Scheme having following components
a) Animal Quarantine and Certification Services (AQCS)
While efforts have been made to ensure better livestock health in the country, simultaneous efforts are equally necessary to prevent entry of any disease from outside into the country through import of livestock and livestock products. With this objective in view, four Animal Quarantine and Certification Service Stations one each at Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and Chennai have been established. These Stations are equipped to deal with all imports coming into the country.
· To strengthen Animal Quarantine and Certification Services
· To develop and implement Animal Quarantine and Certification procedures so as to prevent entry of exotic animal diseases in the country.
· To test or arrange to test samples taken from consignment of livestock and livestock products meant for import and export with facilities for pre-export and post-import quarantining of all types of livestock.
b) Disease Diagnostic Laboratories (Central/Regional Laboratories)
In order to provide referral diagnostic services one Central and five Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratories have been set up/strengthened by the Central Government. The Centre for Animal Disease Research and Diagnosis (CADRAD) of IVRI, Izatnagar is working as the Central Laboratory. The Regional Laboratories are located at Kolkata (Eastern), Pune (Western), Jallandhar (Northern), Bangalore (Southern) and Guwahati (North-eastern). The networking of these laboratories with other laboratories of the State Governments, ICAR and Universities have been initiated for better coordination and efficient disease diagnosis, monitoring and reporting.
· Provide referral services for diagnosing various animal diseases.
· Networking of these referral laboratories with the ICAR, University and State laboratories to support their programmes on disease diagnosis.
· Study the problems of emerging diseases of animals.
· Undertake surveillance against emerging and exotic infections threatening the country.
c) National Veterinary Biological Products Quality Control Centre (Institute of Animal Health)
The Centre is under construction to ensure the quality of veterinary biologicals in the country The Institute has the following objectives
· To recommend licensing of manufacturers of veterinary vaccines, biologicals, drugs, diagnostics and other animal health preparations in the country.
· To establish standard preparations to be used as reference materials in biological assays.
· To ensure quality assurance of the veterinary biologicals both produced indigenously and through imports.
It is expected that the Institute will be functional by March 2006.