The Recommendations of the National Commission on Cattle
I. COMMITTEE ON ADMINISTRATION OF CATTLE LAWS
SUMMARY OF SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS – Chapter III
II. COMMITTEE ON BI-PRODUCTS, DUNG, URINE, BIO-GAS, ELECTRICITY
SUMMARY OF SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS – Chapter V (Part I)
III. ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF CATTLE PRODUCTS AND BI-PRODUCTS
SUMMARY OF SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS – Chapter V (Part II)
IV. COMMITTEE ON GAUSHALAS etc. and FODDER
SUMMARY OF SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS – Chapter VI
V. COMMITTEE ON BREED IMPROVEMENT AND PRESERVATION
SUMMARY OF SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS – Chapter VII
The Recommendations of the National Commission on Cattle are as follows:
1. The Prohibition for slaughter of cow and its progeny, which would include bull, bullocks, etc., should be included in Fundamental Rights or as a Constitutional Mandate anywhere else, as an Article of the Constitution. It should not be kept only in the Directive Principles or / Fundamental duties as neither of these are enforceable by the courts.
2. The amendment of the Constitution should also be made for empowering the Parliament to make a Central Law for the prohibition of slaughter of cow and its progeny and further for prohibition of their transport from one State to another. This may be done by shifting the subject and relevant item from the State List to the Central List, or at least to the Concurrent List in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution.
3. The Parliament should then make a Central Law, applicable to all States, prohibiting slaughter of cow and its progeny. Violation of the Law should be made a non-bailable and cognizable offence. There should be provision for sessions trials for offences committed under the Law, with a punishment of a minimum of three years of rigorous imprisonment and maximum 10 years of rigorous imprisonment with fine. The burden of proof should be on the accused to prove his innocence.
4. The Central Government should constitute a permanent National Cattle Development Commission or Rashtriya Goseva Ayog for preservation and development of cattle all over the country. The Commission should be provided with adequate funds, of say, at least Rs. 100 crores per year
5. There should be a separate Ministry for Cattle Preservation and Development. It should not be under the Department of Animal Husbandry, whose basic mandate is not for cattle preservation but for livestock development and for production of livestock products, including meat products.
6. The Animal Husbandry Department should be reorganized and the subjects allotted to it and the objectives given to it, should be for preservation and development of animals and not for animal food by way of meat, etc.
7. No financial aids should be given by Animal Husbandry or Agriculture Departments for construction, renovation or maintenance of slaughter houses.
8. There should be a complete ban on export of beef and veal. Also, steps should be taken to ensure that beef or veal is not allowed to be exported under the guise or pretext of buffalo meat
9. The Central Government should ensure constitution and functioning of Goseva Ayogs in each of the States and also provide these bodies with adequate funds. These Ayogs should be monitored by the “Rashtriya Go Seva Ayog” to be set up by the Government of India, as proposed above.
10. The implementation of the Cattle Protection Laws should be ensured through the following:
• Creation of Central Cattle Protection – Rapid Task Police Force with regional offices and branches in all States. It should have a special force deputed on the Bangladesh border to prevent the cattle exodus from the border States and also on the Kerala’s borders with Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
• In view of Articles 48 and 51 (g) of the Constitution of India, appropriate directions may be given under Article 355 or any such provision of the Constitution, to Kerala, Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and other North Eastern States to enforce the prohibition on slaughter of the cow and its progeny. Special directions may be given to Kerala to stop importing cattle from neighbouring States for slaughter.
• The provision of the existing laws for prevention of cruelty to cattle during transport by rail, truck, road or otherwise, should be effectively enforced. Cruelty to cows during extraction or let-down of milk by giving injections, such as oxytocin, should be prohibited by law and the prohibition should be enforced.
• The Government should issue a Circular banning production of leather of slaughtered cattle and a mechanism for its enforcement should be evolved. Export of goods made of such leather should be banned.
• The penal laws of preventive arrest and detention like POTO, etc., should be amended to detain smugglers and organised mafia gangs, who indulge in large-scale smuggling of cattle to Bangladesh, West Bengal and Kerala and also in sale of cattle to illegal slaughter houses, operating all over the country.
11. Cross-breeding of indigenous breeds with imported cattle like Jersey should be prohibited, especially in the breeding tracts of important indigenous breeds. Conservation and preservation of these indigenous breeds should be encouraged. A National Breeding Policy should be evolved and special plans should be developed and implemented, with sizeable financial assistance for developing and preserving indigenous breeds throughout India.
12. Subsidies for purchase of tractors and mechanical appliances for Agriculture should be stopped. Instead, the use of bullocks in ploughing and bullock-driven tractors, generation of power through indigenous electrical equipment and carts should be subsidized, promoted and encouraged.
13. The report of the Organic Manure Task Force Committee 2001 should be accepted and its recommendations implemented in total.
14. The use and production of chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides should be discouraged, subsidies on these items should be reduced or abolished altogether. The use of organic manure should be subsidised and promoted.
15. The recommendation of the XI Sub Group (on Meat Sector) set up by the Planning Commission for the 10th Plan proposals should be rejected outright.
16. Gaushalas, Gosadans and Pinjrapoles should be organized through voluntary organizations both by Central and State Governments. The Government should give financial aid for construction and maintenance of such Gaushalas on the basis of matching grants for day-to-day expenses; and 70 per cent grant for capital expenses for construction. They must be allowed free land or land at concessional rates, both for construction and for grazing purposes. Sufficient land should also be given for growing fodder for the cattle in these organisations.
17. Pasture lands should be protected, developed and provided for grazing of cattle belonging to farmers at the village level. Forest laws should be amended to provide grazing facilities for cattle within the forest areas or in the outlying lands fringing on the forests.
18. The use of Gobar (cow dung) and Gomutra (cow urine) of indigenous breeds of cattle should be promoted extensively in agriculture in the form of different manures, composts, Pest-repellents and pesticides.
19. Encouragement should be given to research in cow urine therapy such as that done by the Govigyan Anusandan Kendra, Devalapar, Nagpur and CSIR at Lucknow and other centers, which led to the recent grant of American Patent No.6410059 for use of cow urine “Ark” (Distillate) for enhancing the effect of anti-cancer medicines.
20. The Information and Broadcasting Ministry should under take propagation for awareness campaign of qualities and virtues of cow milk, cow products, cow urine and cow dung. Acceptance of “Panchgavya” by Ayurvedic Sytem of Medicines should be widely propagated and its benefits explained to the people. The medicines from cow products and organic manure utilization should also be given wide publicity by Government Media.
21. In the education and awareness campaign, “Farmans” issued by various Mughal emperors, Akbar, Humayun, Jahangir, and Bahadur Shah Zafar prohibiting cow slaughter during their rule should be widely advertised both in electronic media and other media.
22. In the educational curriculum, the subjects should be introduced on Panchgavya therapy, cow milk, cow urine and other by products of cow, the use of cow and bullock in agriculture, organic manure and medicines prepared from cow dung and cow urine.
23. All India University should be established for the above and such subjects should be introduced in all Universities particularly Agricultural Universities and on Animal Sciences and in Veterinary Colleges and Universities and Hospitals.
24. The cultivation of fodder and manufacture of feed for cattle should be encouraged. The States should be asked to ensure production of fodder and feed in proportion to the size of their cattle population.
25. In some States, such as Punjab and Haryana, standing crop residues which can be used as fodder are burnt. This should be made a penal offence as precious fodder is being wasted, whereas many States are deficient in fodder.
26. On the pattern of Food Corporation of India, a Fodder Corporation of India should be constituted and branches should be established in each State with storage facilities.
27. The Agricultural Universities and Agriculture Ministry with Forest Ministry collaboration should ensure special fodder production drive. The State Governments and the Central Government should subsidise the fodder sale on the pattern of food subsidies given to ‘Below Poverty Line’ (BPL) Indian citizens from ration shops, through the Public Distribution System.
28. A circular should be sent by the Central Government directing that the State laws and Municipality laws, prohibiting keeping of cattle in Civil Lines and cities, should be suitably amended to permit the house owner to keep 2 to 4 cows and their progeny in their houses or campus even in the city areas or town areas. At the same time, strict action should be taken against those cattle owners who allow their cattle loose on the streets.
29. A circular should be sent to the State Governments Panchayats and Municipalities to regulate control, remove and maintain the stray cattle wandering on streets and roadsides without owners. They should be kept in cattle houses or cattle compounds to be maintained by the local Self-Government institutions, Municipalities and Panchayats.
30. The Commission recommends that early steps may be taken for a Parliamentary Legislation applicable to the whole country by repealing various legislations now in force and a resolution as contemplated in Article 249 (i) may be passed by the Rajya Sabha or action under Article 252 could also be initiated, and a central legislation on the subject could be brought about to achieve the desired objects and the common problems in different States could be taken care of by such common legislation.
31. While amending the Fundamental Rights chapter of the Constitution, a proviso to Article 19 may be added after sub clause 5 “ provided, the right to carry on any trade or business shall not in any way extend to the slaughter of the cow and its progeny and / or to conduct business/trade in Beef”.
32. Similar proviso to be added to Article 301 “provided, the right to carry on any trade or business shall not in anyway extend to the slaughter of the cow and its progeny and/or to conduct business/trade in Beef”
33. In the Concurrent List, the following to be added:
a) Prohibition of Slaughter of cow and its progeny.
b) Laws relating to the movement of cow and its progeny from State to State.
34. To declare the Indian breeds as the national wealth of India and no slaughter of any native breed of our country shall be permitted at any cost.
35. It is recommended that a Central Cattle Commission be permanently constituted, which shall have as representatives, at least eight Members / Directors, one each in charge of i) feed and fodder; ii) cattle movement; iii) on enforcement; iv) grazing lands; v) breeding; vi) research, analysis and development; vii) organic farming; and viii) veterinary medical services. Such cattle commissions should also be set up in each State.
36. Grazing lands should compulsorily be set apart, whether Government allotted or temple lands. Use of these lands should be exclusively made available only for cattle grazing and should not be allowed for any other use.
37. If there are any grazing or pasturelands, which have been encroached upon, the encroachment should be immediately removed by the concerned Government authorities.
38. Every State must have a Breed Center, which should concentrate on the development of the indigenous breeds and not on foreign breeds. These breeding centers should also upgrade and develop the breeds.
39. A Cattle Census should be taken regularly and its results compiled speedily. Breed-wise numbers should be recorded and every indigenous breed must be registered.
40. A Cattle Laws Enforcement Directorate should be constituted, which shall be in charge of the movement of cows, bulls, bullocks and calves from place to place and State to State and also monitor whether the cow / cattle moved out from one State, has been utilized for the purpose for which it was sought to be moved.
41. Centres for promotion of the usage of cow urine, dung and Panchagavya, medicines, etc and also research centers to be constituted for the promotion of production and use of alternative source of energy, such as Gobar gas, alternative methods of farming, through use of draught animal power, organic manure, cow urine pesticides etc.
42. Export and Import of beef to be totally banned.
43. “Save the Indian Breeed” Campaign to be launched all over the country.
44. There must be a constitutional status of Cow as the National Animal (Rashtriya Prani) and killing of cow and its progeny should be made a constitutional offence.
45. All types of manufacture, sale, use and import of Polythene Bags should be banned and prohibited.
46. Throwing eatables or eatable waste in polythene bags on the streets, roads or in dust bins, within the reach of cattle consumption, should be made a penal offence.
47. The Government should encourage and implement breeding policy by which a genetic improvement and upgradation of existing cross-bred cattle should be brought about by further crossing with good indigenous breeds.
48. The auctioning of all the working bullocks in the Municipality Corporations, Panchayats and other places should be stopped. Instead, they should be given retirement and maintained till they die their natural deaths. Their work had been utilized throughout their working life and after that their dung can continue to be used for production of organic manure..
49. Temples and religious places, should be prohibited from selling or auctioning the cattle, which are donated or gifted by worshippers. The trustees of these places should either keep the cattle in their own Goshalas or give them to nearby Goshalas for maintenance.
50. The various recommendations made by the Commission are based on the suggestions given by the Committees on different issues, given in the relevant Chapters viz. Chapter III on Administration of cattle laws; Chapter-IV on Legislation; Chapter V on economic contribution of cattle and by-products of cow and its progeny; Chapter VI on Goshalas and Fodder; and Chapter VI on Breeding and preservation and improvement of breeds. The Commission recommends that the detailed suggestions given by these Committees, should be also accepted and implemented by the concerned Department or Departments of the Government of India and the State Governments and treated as the recommendations of the Commission itself.
The recommendations of the individual Committees are summarized below.
I. COMMITTEE ON ADMINISTRATION OF CATTLE LAWS
SUMMARY OF SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS – Chapter III
1) The Government of India must enact a Central Legislation for protection of cattle wealth and totally prohibiting its slaughter. The inclusion of the subject of animal husbandry in the State list is not a impossible hurdle to overcome. This issue should be considered as an issue of vital national interest and rising above politics, the Parliament must enact a Constitution amendment to bring the subject in the Concurrent List to enable the Parliament to enact the law.
2) In the meantime, all the State laws should be studied by a Central agency (if possible by the Law Commission) and they should suggest amendment in laws to bring about consistencies in definitions and other provisions. The provisions regarding definitions, scope, burden of proof, cognizability of the offence, penal provisions etc. should be made uniform. The arbitrary powers given to the Competent authorities (which are mainly veterinary doctors) should be withdrawn and some other arrangement must be thought about.
3) The Home Ministry should direct the States to constitute special squads in the Police department to check illegal slaughter, illegal transportation within the States and outside the State, particularly to Kerala and West Bengal. They should be directed to extend full support, co-operation and protection to animal welfare activists. They should also be directed to immediately register FIRs, institute legal cases and ensure their speedy disposal, so that the culprits are punished as per law.
4) In many State Acts there are a number of exemptions from the main provisions imposing complete / partial ban on slaughter. The exemptions are used more as rule and the very purpose of the legislation gets defeated. Hence any type of exemptions should not be provided in the Act.
5) Special arrangements to check smuggling on the boundaries with Bangladesh in the East and Pakistan in the West (Gujarat / Kutch borders) should be made. If necessary a section of BSF or Army may be entrusted with this responsibility.
6) The Government should impose a total ban on meat exports, which alone can check slaughter of cattle for clandestine export of beef in the guise of buffalo meat.
7) Express provisions for granting custody of cattle, which are seized while being taken for illegal slaughter, to the animal welfare organization must be made in all the State laws together with provisions for payment of maintenance charges to these organisations.
8) Booking of cattle for transportation for any purpose by railways must be completely banned. The high cost of road transportation will act as some impediment to illegal transportation for slaughter.
9) The Government should come out with provisions in State laws for confiscation of vehicles (trucks/tempos) used by the meat traders for illegal transportation of cattle. Similar provisions for confiscation of vehicles, used in theft / smuggling of forest produce, exist in forest laws.
10) The Transportation of Cattle Rules under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 should be strictly implemented and, even otherwise, the implementation agencies must be strengthened and oriented to the need for cattle preservation.
11) The penal provisions in the State laws as well as in the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act should be more stringent with higher fines and longer terms of imprisonment. There should also be a provision for automatic review of acquittal orders of the Lower Courts by a superior court.
12) Temples should not be permitted to auction the cows and calves received as ‘gifts’ or ‘donations’ from devotees.
II. COMMITTEE ON LEGISLATION SUMMARY OF SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS – Chapter IV
1) The Commission recommends that early steps may be taken for a Parliamentary Legislation applicable to the whole country by repealing various legislations now in force (paragraph 16 – Part I).
2) The Commission is of the view that Entry 15 of List II should be shifted to List III to enable Parliament to give proper attention to the matter and bring about proper legislation (paragraph 18 – Part I).
3) Early steps should be taken to move the Supreme Court for a review of the judgement delivered in Hanif’s case, in respect of the third category shown in the judgement (paragraph 25 – Part 1).
4) There should be a provision embodied in the Act recognizing the right of the Indian Citizen to a slaughter-less society of the cattle species and, extending the protection to the two categories now excluded from protection, namely bulls and bullocks after they have ceased to be capable of breeding or working as draught animals should be provided by law (Paragraph 26 – Part I).
5) The Commission suggests to the Central Government to create public opinion against beef-eating and stop killing of the bull and bullocks in addition to cows and calves (Paragraph 27 – Part I).
6) The Commission recommends that the existing law should be strictly followed and penal action should be effective, so that violation is reduced and the law is implemented (Paragraph 29 – Part I).
II. COMMITTEE ON BI-PRODUCTS, DUNG, URINE, BIO-GAS, ELECTRICITY
SUMMARY OF SUGGESTIONS / RECOMMENDATIONS – Chapter V (Part I)
1. Intensive efforts must be initiated immediately to identify and preserve all the indigenous breeds of cows and bulls.
2. Policy of cross breeding with exotic breeds must be reviewed immediately. Efforts must be made to upgrade indigenous breeds with suitable other indigenous breeds. Such cross breeding must be made with well-defined aims and objectives and must be based on scientific and genetic characters. Cross breeding policy must be reviewed periodically on the basis of the results of previous experiments.
A central / regional cattle research institute be established to serve as a guide for this purpose.
3. Research programmes, as identified below, should be undertaken, encouraged and supported in national institutions, universities and non-government institutions:
1) Genetic and other studies necessary for characterization of indigenous cattle breeds and for using as parameters for selection of breed for indigenous intra-breed cross breeding with an aim to upgrade them.
2) Identification of anatomical characters (such as hump), which are characteristics of indigenous breeds and to study their physiological significance.
3) Comparative chemical, microbiological and immunological analysis of milk and urine and dung of various indigenous cattle breeds and buffaloes with special reference to their agricultural, medicinal and nutritional significance.
4) Chemical and microbiological analysis of fertilizers and pest repellents, produced from cattle urine and dung with a view to serve as evaluation parameters of these products.
5) Technological studies for optimization of production operations involved in agricultural products from cattle.
6) Determination of quality control parameters for raw materials and finished products from cattle. Attention may also be given to various stages of development and physiological condition of health & diseases when such raw materials may be accepted or rejected.
7) Verification of clinical and medicinal claims made in ancient literature related to health sciences with regard to medicinal properties of products obtained from various breeds of cattle. Pharmacological, microbiological, immunological, and toxicological studies of these remedies.
8) Development of best-suited technological operations which are necessary for optimal efficacy of the medicinal products obtained from cattle urine, dung, milk, buttermilk and Ghee and any other such product.
9) Determination of quality control parameters for raw materials including age, health and physiological status of cow used for production of medicinal products from milk, Ghee, butter-milk, urine and dung (and any other secretion) of cows.
10) Research on bio-fertilizers and bio-pest repellents to determine their soil and crop specificity. Composition and efficacy of fertilizer obtained from dead cow’s horn merits special attention.
11) Influence of cow’s urine on rate of germination of seeds and plant growth. Presence of plant and human immuno-stimulant substances in cow’s urine.
12) Development and evaluation of technology for production of mechanical, thermal and electrical energy from cattle.
13) Efficacy and utility of radiation-preventing ability of cow dung.
14) Development of eco-friendly methods of disposal or replacement by other suitable substitutes of polythene bags and other materials.
15) Utilization of cow’s milk as immunogen transmission vehicles through hyper-immune cow.
16) Use of lactic acid bacteria as nutrient and for medicinal purpose especially for production of antibiotic substances.
17) Suitability of species of earthworm for production of Vermicompost and their ecological effect.
18) Plant Antibiotic substances in cow’s urine.
19) A `cow urine concoction’ is seen to be useful in medical practice in many ways in the country. Usefulness of such formulation from indigenous species may be investigated.
20) Technology and quality control aspects of cosmetic products from products of cattle.
4. A broad-based review committee be constituted at national level which should review the progress in the area of research and utilization of cattle products. The committee should guide the various research institutions, other organizations and departments involved for means of optimal utilization of cattle products.
5. Possibility of utilizing vegetable and kitchen waste in all the municipal areas in the country for production of vermicompost should be seriously examined and implemented wherever feasible. Such efforts are in progress in the city of Mumbai and advantage could be derived from that experience.
6. Indiscriminate throwing of plastic and polyethylene bags must be banned. A suitable systematic plan of disposal of plastic & polyethylene bags must be evolved and implemented. A public education program in this respect must be initiated.
7. Education programme for farmers concerning benefits of organic farming by using bio-fertilizers and bio - pest repellents must be started. Agricultural universities and departments and non-government organization may be involved in such programmes.
8. The useful medicinal products are available from cattle products. The drug control authorities in the country should, after thorough examination, include such products in Indian pharmacopoeia so that their production and quality may be suitably standardized.
9. Use of oestrogens and similar drugs increasing the yield of milk of cows should be banned for reasons of health of cows.
10. Utilization of cattle and cattle products (dung cake and biogas) as source of thermal, mechanical and electrical energy should be encouraged and subsidized.
III. ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF CATTLE PRODUCTS AND BI-PRODUCTS
SUMMARY OF SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS – Chapter V (Part II)
Data and Research
1) A sound data-base or data-collection system be developed, which would throw up data regarding cattle numbers, numbers of work animals, energy outputs, milk production, dung and urine utilisation, number of bio-gas plants, etc.
2) An inventory should be drawn up of all research that has been conducted, be it on organic farming and composting, cow urine therapy etc.
3) A programme for conduct of scientific research into several aspects of the issue should be drawn up, with special focus on the subjects given in detail in the Recommendations.
Organic manure & Composting techniques
4) Improved methods of composting should be popularised amongst farmers by large-scale training programmes and demonstration through the extension networks. NGOs like Goshalas should be involved in this activity.
5) Awareness about the efficacy and utility of dung-based manure and compost should be spread far and wide, through the use of the various forms of media, including audio-visual, print and through Krishi Vigyan Kendras and information kiosks at the village level.
6) Facilities for certification of organically produced vegetables, grains and other crops should be made available to the farmers, who can obtain a better remuneration for their organically-produced products.
7) Marketing and transport of these labelled products should be facilitated.
8) If possible, in the initial period at least, subsidies should be given for production of organic produce, rather than subsidising the use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides.
Milk and Milk Products
9) Cow’s milk should be separately labelled and marketed on a large scale, for which labelling should be made mandatory.
10) The pricing policy based on fat content of milk, (which favours buffalo milk, leading to an ever-widening preference of the farmer to keep milch buffaloes rather than cows) needs a serious re-look to correct the tilt in favour of the buffalo.
11) The benefits of taking cow’s milk should be propagated and awareness should be spread through an aggressive media campaign, holding of seminars etc.
Utilisation of cattle urine
12) For collection of urine, proper sheds with appropriate channels in the floor need to be set up, for which advice may be given to the farmers.
13) Subsidies could be given for construction of special sheds.
14) Subsidies could also be given for collection and transportation of the products to the manure or medicine-producing facilities, if they are at a distance from the source.
15) Special efforts may be made to popularise the use of Panchagavya treatment, by spreading awareness about its efficacy in curing various diseases.
16) Similarly, the efficacy of cow urine therapy, based on properly documented trials and research studies, may be made known to the general public.
17) However, while procedures for grant of licenses for production of these medicines may be simplified, care needs to be taken to ensure that quacks are not able to take advantage of the simplified procedures, as this would be to the detriment of the patients seeking relief, as has happened in some stray cases.
Carcass utilisation after natural death of cattle
18) In the matter of carcass utilisation, the collection of horns and other products like hides and skins from dead cattle should be organized properly.
19) New technologies should be used for carcass utilisation, so that the economy can gain from the benefits, bestowed by the benevolent cow, which even gives to mankind after her death. The employment of the rural population engaged in this trade will not be disturbed if this is done.
Draught Animal Power
20) Tractorisation needs to be curbed and the use of draught cattle for agricultural purposes as well as for transport needs to be restored, by developing improved ploughing implements and harnesses.
21) Special draught breeds of cattle should be developed and improved genetically, so that this valuable source of energy remains available to the farmer, especially the small and marginal farmers.
Co-ordination amongst agencies
22) There should be a nodal body for co-ordinating with the different Government Departments and other agencies in the matter of organic farming and the utilisation of cattle dung and urine for composting.
23) Similarly, there should be a coordinating body for use of draught animal power, which is presently with the Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources, whereas, tractorisation and mechanisation are with the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation and breeding and bullock production are with the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying.
Role of Goshalas, Gosadans etc.
24) The roles of Goshalas, Gosadans and Panjarapoles should be enhanced for evolution of better manures, pesticides and medicines.
25) These organization should be encouraged to become self-sustaining by selling or properly utilising the dung and urine from even dry cattle.
26) They should be given grants in the initial stages to develop self-sufficiency by adopting modern methods of collection and usage of these products.
27) They should lay down time-bound programmes with firm plans of action to achieve self-sufficiency and these programmes should be closely monitored and subsequent grants with-held if the targets are not achieved. On the other hand, if the targets are achieved within the scheduled times, additional incentives and awards should be given.
28) Bio-gas generation should be given impetus in a big way.
29) Research for production of new and improved cost-effective plants should be encouraged.
30) The benefits of using such plants should be explained to farmers with regard to how they can meet their energy needs, at the same time, producing valuable manure in the form of the residual slurry.
31) The ecological and environmental aspects of bio-gas generation needs to be studied and quantified. The results of such studies, in terms of the saving of forests, reduction in pollution caused by burning of diesel and other fuels need to be analysed and conveyed to the general populace, especially in the rural areas, to bring home to them the real benefits of saving the cow and its progeny.
IV. COMMITTEE ON GAUSHALAS etc. and FODDER
SUMMARY OF SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS – Chapter VI
Strengthening of Gaushalas (Paragraph 28)
1) Gaushalas should be motivated to make the best use of their so-far under-utilized resources, viz cow dung and cow urine.
2) At least one Gaushala in each District should be got developed into a ‘Krishi-Govigyan Anusandhan Kendra’ with units to demonstrate the processes and methods for making Nadep Compost, Vermi-compost, bio-pesticides and for generating bio-energy.
3) A Laboratory and Documentation Centre may be set up at each Division Headquarters or for a cluster of Districts for testing the bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides prepared at ‘Krishi Go-Vigyan Anusandhan Kendras’.
4) A suitable fraction of the Krishi Mandi Tax may be used for maintaining the Kendras and Laboratories proposed to be established, as has been done in U.P.
5) The Gaushalas may get their workers trained at the ‘Krishi Go-vigyuan Anusandhan Kendras’.
6) The State Government concerned should provide water and electricity to Gaushalas and Pinjarapoles at concessional rates.
7) The Animal Husbandry Department of the State should ensure that complete veterinary cover is provided to Gaushalas and Pinjarapoles.
8) A well-equipped and far-reaching extension service should be organised by the Animal Husbandry Department, independent of the Agriculture Extension Service, which mainly concentrates only on crop extension work.
9) Arrangements should be made for providing adequate financial assistance to Gaushalas and Pinjarapoles for building up their infrastructure. Funds could be raised by levying a cess on export of leather and leather goods.
10) Scheme of working capital loan may be introduced for Gaushalas, Gausadans and Pinjarapoles. The State Governments can create venture capital funds for this purpose in collaboration with NABARD.
11) Gaushala Credit Cards, on the lines of the Kisan Credit Card, should be given to Gaushalas, in which credit is given against future production of milk, bio-fertilisers, bio-pesticides, panchagavaya medicines etc. may also help solve the problem of working capital. Under this scheme, Gaushalas will get credit against their future production of milk, bio-fertilizer, bio-pesticide and panchgavya medicine etc.
12) The State Government should evolve a margin money scheme for Gaushalas, on the lines of KVIC’s Margin Money Scheme. Alternatively, a soft loan scheme can be introduced.
13) Contributions for running of Gaushalas such as Lag, Biti, Katauti and Dharmada etc. should be legalised and their collection be regulated for utilisation in the improvement of Gaushalas and Pinjarapoles.
14) Donations made to the registered Krishi Govigyan Anusandhan Kendras be made completely Tax free under section 35 AC of Income Tax.
15) For good working arrangements between Gaushalas-Pinjarapoles and the State Governments, a cell should be created in the Department of Animal Husbandry under a competent authority.
16) State Governments should organise annual meetings at State-level between managers of Gaushalas-Pinjarapoles in the State and concerned State Government functionaries dealing with RD, AH and other Departments.
17) An intensive training programme should be undertaken so that they can understand the economic prospects of their own resources in the form of cow dung and cow urine.
Feed and Fodder Development – Paragraph 41
18) Efforts should be made to change the mindset of agriculture scientists from crop culture to sustainable animal culture in rain-fed areas of the country, where livestock contribution to the family income can be more than 70%.
19) The State Governments should have time-bound drives to evacuate Charagah lands and also have ‘on-the-spot fast-track courts’ to deal with cases of unauthorised occupation of these lands.
20) While allotting ‘sivay chak’ (govt. land), it should be ensured that priority is given to the Gaushalas. In command areas, some patches should be kept reserved for Gosadans and Gaushalas.
21) The concerned Gram Panchayats should be involved in the allotment process of grazing ‘Beeds’ in forest areas. Also, the charges should be just nominal.
22) The forest authorities should develop these ‘beeds’ into first-rate grazing grounds, with the addition of fodder grasses and fodder trees such as ‘khejri’, ‘Ber’, ‘Aru’ etc.
23) ‘Charagah Conservation Committees’ should be set up to create awareness amongst the villagers, about the importance of conserving these lands. Representatives from forest, revenue, agriculture and Panchayati Raj institutions should also be involved.
24) Wastelands should be converted into grazing lands by planting grasses and fodder trees. This should be the responsibility of Gram Panchayats. The State Governments should give rewards to such village Panchayats.
25) The vast areas of non-forest forests, should be utilised for developing good grazing lands, for which time-bound projects should be taken up by the State Forest Departments.
26) Gaushalas should be exempted from the provisions of the Land Ceiling Acts in the States.
27) A scheme for production of fodder seeds of high quality should be developed and these should be made available at reasonable prices to the farmers. High-yielding, drought-resistant varieties should be developed and propagated for use in areas of scanty rainfall.
28) Forest and other grasses should be harvested during the monsoon season and converted into hay and then packaged, compressed and transported to user destinations, for use in seasons where there is fodder scarcity. Problem soils and wastelands should be developed into fodder resource banks.
29) Crop residues should be converted into energetic feed and oil-meals into proteins. The Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying should have a special R&D fund to encourage institutions (both in public and private sector) to undertake result-oriented and time-bound projects in these areas.
30) A Central Sector Scheme for establishing a database on various feed and fodder resources, feeding practices and consumption patterns in various agro-climatic zones should be evolved and implemented. The data base should be updated every two years.
31) A separate Feed and Fodder Development Authority should be established, within the Department of Animal Husbandry, with necessary technical manpower to undertake inter-agency coordination in fodder production, fodder seed production, conservation and transport.
32) Fodder Production and Demonstration Stations should be established at Divisional Headquarters in all the States, on the lines of the Regional Stations set up by the Central Government at seven places.
33) Budgetary provision under the Scheme ‘Assistance to States for Feed and Fodder Development should be enhanced. The States be asked to prepare realistic and result oriented projects for fodder development. The Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying should ensure that all the funds that are allocated is fully utilised at the end of each Annual Plan.
34) The State Governments, particularly those where cattle population is large, should develop a system of having fodder reserves, just on the pattern of food grain reserves of Food Corporation of India.
35) It should be made mandatory for Gaushalas, having land, to grow fodder crops, fodder trees and grasses.
36) The States should develop and maintain pasture and fodder patches along water reservoirs, canals and rivers.
37) Panchayat Raj Institutions, such as Gram Panchayats and Panchayat Samitis, should be encouraged to prepare proposals for developing pasture-lands. The district planning committees should take up these proposals on priority basis using united funds.
38) It is desirable to put a ban on the use of combine harvesting machines in their present form, as the wheat straw is completely crushed in this mechanised process. Burning of standing crop residues should be prohibited.
39) The development of fodder plants through the adoption of Tissue Culture techniques, should be encouraged.
40) Fragmentary holdings should be consolidated as early as possible either by persuasion or legislation. Use of Khurpas should be banned, since this implement erases the grass by the root.
Strategies for dealing with stray and ‘so-called’ useless or dry cattle
1) Establishment of Village Gosadans in each village – Details in Paragraph 48 2) Establishment of Cow Sanctuaries in each State – details in Paragraph 50. 3) Establishment of Cattle Colonies - Some of the Cow Sanctuaries should be selected for developing as Cattle Colonies as per details in Paragraph 51.
4) Establishment of a National Cattle Colony - The Central Govt. may consider to develop a ‘National Cattle Colony’ in the Sevan grass area of Jaisalmer district. Good indigenous breeds of cattle like Tharparkar may be kept there. Details are given in Paragraph 52 of the Report of the Committee- Chapter VI.
5) A Scheme for Eco-Friendly Cow-based Village Development should be evolved, as per the blue-print given in paragraph 53 of the Chapter.
V. COMMITTEE ON BREED IMPROVEMENT AND PRESERVATION
SUMMARY OF SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS – Chapter VII
1. The Government should review its breeding policy and provide more emphasis to conservation of indigenous breeds. If required, a separate policy for conservation of indigenous cattle breeds and their germplasm should be drawn up and translated into an implementable programme.
2. Cross-breeding with exotic strains should be totally banned in the home tracts of the important cattle breeds and the ban should be strictly got implemented by the State Governments.
3. A judicious mix of cross-breeding with exotic strains and preservation of indigenous germplasm should be maintained, while formulating the policy. Import of germplasm should be allowed only in very specific cases and after taking all the precautions to prevent the ingress of diseases into the country.
Implementation of the Breeding Programmes
4. A proper institutionalised monitoring mechanism be established from the Centre downwards, so that the implementation of the Breeding Policy directives is monitored closely.
5. Directions should be given to the State Governments to draw up region-specific and breed-specific breeding strategies, programmes and plans to implement the conservation programme.
6. Targets should be allocated to the concerned State Governments, in terms of actual numbers of cattleheads of the particular breed, infrastructure facilities such as sperm stations, bull farms etc.
7. Regular review meetings should be held to consider the results achieved in terms of the physical and financial targets achieved, and corrective action taken wherever the targets are not met.
8. The Centre in turn should provide adequate funding to the State Governments to implement the programmes and annual plans. Other sources of funding should also be tapped. (For example, the Haryana Government is reportedly collecting Rs.0.10 per litre of milk from Gopalaks/milk producers and the money goes into a fund, which is used to supplement the efforts for breed improvement. The Government expects to collect Rs.14 crore through this method).
Creation of scope for larger use of indigenous cattle breeds
9. The States should be directed to specifically delineate and identify, in their respective breeding policies, the geographical boundaries of the areas where non-descript cattle should be upgraded by crossing with bulls of indigenous breeds.
10. Once such areas are earmarked, no cross-breeding of non-descript cattle, other than with bulls of indigenous breeds, should be permitted. This measure will provide an incentive to the farmers in the breeding tracts to rear male stock of indigenous breeds up to the breeding age, as the demand will create a market for the bull semen or natural service. Consequently, the practice of disposing off the male calves for slaughter will be curbed to a large extent.
Supply of good quality breeding material in the breeding tracts
11. The status of the indigenous breeds needs to be evaluated afresh. This is not only because the composition of cattle in the breeding tract has changed, even the specimens and genetic make-up of the breeds have undergone changes over the past few decades.
12. Breeds, which no longer find favour with the farmers, whatever the reason may be, should be identified and these breeds should be preserved only in the institutional farms, with improved conservation technologies.
13. Breeds, which are accepted by the common farmer, should be developed through region-specific and breed-specific programmes, aimed at selection in the breeding tracts and supply of improved quality of germplasm for breeding of cattle for supply to farmers on demand.
14. The progress of such programmes should be monitored through the institutional mechanism, recommended above to be set up.
15. For sourcing cross-bred bulls, the Military dairy farms should be used as a major source of contribution to the Bull production programme.
Promotion of Breeders’ Organisations
16. Government should encourage and promote the organisation and establishment of breed-specific associations to represent the requirements for development of particular indigenous breeds.
17. Such Associations can then form a Federation at the apex level to take up issues with the Government either at the State or Central level.
18. Government should accept the private sector players as partners in the efforts towards conservation of Indian breeds of cattle and achieve better results by involving them in a participatory manner.
Enhancing the role of voluntary organisations - NGOs
19. An inventory of Goshalas/Gosadans/Pinjrapoles having good specimens of indigenous breeds of cattle should be drawn up, alongwith the details and numbers of cattle-heads.
20. Such organisations should be designated with some appellation, which would distinguish them from other organisations maintaining other non-descript, aged or infirm cattle. For want of a better name, maybe the term ‘Goshala’ could be used, with other organisations, not having the indigenous specimens, being termed as Gosadans or Pinjrapoles only.
21. Each such designated organisation should adopt only one or two breeds, depending on the strength and composition of their herds, and segregate them from the other cattle, which they may like to continue to maintain as part of their animal welfare role. A specific breed-improvement/conservation programme should be drawn up for each designated organisation in consultation and collaboration with Government agencies.
22. Such organisations can also participate in the Government-sponsored programmes for rearing of male calves from weaning to maturity, for breeding purposes. The male calves on becoming bulls can then be supplied to farmers and other clients in the breeding tracts for mating with breedable females and for upgrading non-descript breeds in other areas.
23. The designated organisations should also be provided with scientific and technical inputs and training for genetic evaluation and selection of germplasm for breed improvement and upgradation programmes.
Use of Science and Technology
24. Scientific and technological intervention in breeding programmes should be urgently taken up as a priority by the concerned Governmental agencies.
25. Technologies such as artificial insemination, frozen semen production, progeny-testing, embryo transfer technology (ETT) should be used, after proper evaluation, wherever required, so that modern up-dated scientific methods can be used to give a fillip to the programme for conservation, preservation and upgradation of breeds.
26. The comparative advantages of Artificial Insemination and Natural Service, should be studied and the appropriate method should be adopted according to the specific needs, requirements and location of different areas.
27. Monitoring cells for certification of sperm stations and bulls for frozen semen, should be established at the State levels and only certified semen should be used for AI, as suggested by the Working Group on Animal Husbandry set up for the Tenth Plan proposals.
Statistical Date Base
28. A reliable data base should be developed with regard to all the details of indigenous breeds, including their breeding tracts, numbers, characteristics, genetic make-up, germplasm, the institutional farms where they are being preserved and / or conserved and so on.
29. Data bases should also be developed with regard to non-descript , as well as cross-bred cattle.
30. A proper distinction should be made in nomenclature and classification of indigenous breeds, especially the recognised breeds, separating them from non-descript varieties. This classification should be communicated to the data collectors at the filed level so that estimates of milk yield and other production data can be correctly collected.
31. The Livestock Census must be conducted in a timely manner and, more importantly, the results compiled quickly.
32. While taking the Cattle census, the data-collecting agency should also gather details about the indigenous breeds, such as the name of the breed to which the specimen belongs, age, productivity etc.
33. If it is not feasible to collect the detailed data through the Livestock Census, which is conducted by laymen, as is the population census, a special Cattle Census should be got conducted in all the States, especially in the major cattle populated areas and breeding tracts to collect all the details.
34. The data of the Cattle Census should be fed into the data-base and then up-dated from time to time through surveys and other statistical methods for data collection.
35. A breeding network should be set up by computerising and net-working all AI outlets, sperm stations, breeding farms and Goshalas and other agencies involved in the production of breeding material and implementation of breeding programmes.
36. Monitoring of all aspects and facets of the breeding activities should also be done through use of the computerised mechanisms and networks.