1.               Introduction:


1.1     Several  schemes under different plan periods  have been implemented  both with Central and State funds  to strengthen cattle and  buffalo  breeding activities  in  the  States.        Substantial infrastructure has been created     leading  to enhanced output from cattle and buffalo,  particularly in terms of milk. Despite this, the low productivity level  of our livestock is the major concern in the development of  289 million cattle and buffalo.  Nearly 80%   of our cattle and 60 % of buffaloes are low yielding and do not belong to the defined breeds. Around 20% of all breedable bovines are under AI coverage and conception rate of AI is about 20%.   Breed improvement programmes for indigenous milch and draught breeds are also not effectively organised. A systematic and focussed  attention to provide pedigreed bulls for natural mating systems and revamp the AI network in terms of coverage as well as quality of resources and services is needed to realise full potential of the large bovine population.  The  existing artificial breeding  infrastructure consisting of bull stations, semen banks, etc. suffers from several inadequacies and has vast scope of improvement.

1.2.                     The Government of India initiated action in the beginning of 9th Plan towards formulation of a comprehensive scheme for cattle and buffalo breeding in consultation with State Governments and other concerned agencies with an aim to consolidate the gains achieved till 8th Plan Period, to maximise returns on investments, and to ensure sustainability of operations as well as quality in breeding inputs and services. These efforts culminated in merger of the ongoing centrally sponsored schemes on cattle and buffalo breeding, namely Extension of Frozen Semen Technology & Progeny Testing Programmes (EFST&PTP) and National Bull Production Programmes (NBPP) into a new centrally sponsored scheme the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding (NPCBB) which aims at thorough  re-organization  and reorientation of  the cattle and buffalo breeding operations in the country.

1.3.                     The proposed scheme entitled  National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding   envisage  inter-alia

(i)                 radically  improving coverage of bovine population under  organised     breeding programmes

(ii)               delivery  of  breeding  inputs  at the farmer's doorstep

(iii)             improvement in quality of bulls used for natural service

(iv)             conservation of indigenous breeds

(v)               imposing  a levy on services and inputs to` make the agencies providing  the  same  self sustaining through  recycling of  receipts  thus accrued

(vi)             strict  quality control of services and  inputs

(vii)           optimum capacity  utilization  in institutional infrastructure

(viii)         developing  synergies  among major players

(ix)             putting in place   field  recording and progeny  testing programmes  through networking  for  indigenous cattle,   crossbred  cattle and buffaloes   to identify and propagate superior germ-plasm for genetic improvement     

(x)         making  training  and  retraining  of professionals and AI   workers an integral part of the scheme


2.              Duration of Project

Originally the project spanning over 10 years was to be completed in two phases. However, due to delay in approval of the project, the activities will now spill over beyond the 9th Plan and will be implemented with allocation as approved by the Planning Commission for the period beyond the 9th Plan. In effect years 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 will be the first two years of  Phase - I of the Project, and the remaining activities of  Phase - I will spill over into the first three years of the 10th Plan

3.       Approval by Government of India

Approval of Government of India for implementation of the project  throughout the country; on 100% grant-in-aid basis; over a ten year period in two phases  each of five years with an allocation of Rs  402.00 crore for  Phase-I with the provision that fund requirements would be reviewed on annual basis as the scheme progresses;  implementation in first two years of Phase-I  during the 9th Plan with an allocation of Rs 44.00 crore during 2000 -2001 and Rs 135.05 crore during 2001-2002 with all  estimates, components, physical / financial targets given in Appendices I & II; and continuation of spill over activities of Phase-I  during 10th  Plan; has since been obtained.  Administrative Approval for the scheme has been issued vide this Department's O.M. No. 45-4(I)/98-LDT  dated 18  October  2000.

4.         Objectives

4.1     The Project envisages 100% grant-in-aid to implementing agencies to achieve the following   objectives  :   (i)   To arrange delivery of a vastly improved artificial  insemination service at the farmers' door-step ; (ii) to progressively bring all breedable females among cattle and buffalo, under organised breeding through artificial insemination or Natural Service by high quality bulls, within a period of ten years; (iii) to undertake breed improvement programme for indigenous cattle and buffalo breeds so as to improve their genetic qualities as well as their availability; and (iv)to provide quality breeding inputs in breeding tract of  important indigenous breeds so as to prevent the breeds from deterioration and extinction.

    4.2.                    These objectives are sought to be realised by :


(a)            Establishing  appropriate institutional  structures  to channel and supply high quality breeding inputs and services,

(b)            Setting  up national standards for bulls, semen,  semen laboratories and AI services   to guarantee quality assurance,

(c)            Training  of  inseminators and professionals  based  on nationally accepted curriculum and hands - on practices, and

(d)            Regulating and strengthening breeding system in area covered by natural service.


4.3.                     Broad frame-work of cattle and buffalo breeding policy recommended for the country since mid-sixties envisaged selective breeding of indigenous breeds in their breeding tracts and use of such breeds for upgrading a proportion of non-descript stock. While the frame-work was accepted  by the States, appropriate operationalisation  of the same through field level programmes could not be done because of various reasons. Lack of interest in promoting Breed Organisation/Societies and related farmers' bodies  contributed to gradual deterioration of indigenous breeds. Majority of owners having indigenous breeds were not willing to accept AI which came to be the prime Government intervention towards breed improvement. Eventually availability of good quality bulls to be used for natural mating in breeding tracts became scarce, leading to further deterioration of indigenous breeds in these tracts. The National Project now formulated will comprehensively deal with the problem  and insist on adoption of  specific measures for conservation of indigenous breeds



5.                Project Components

5.1.                      To make the project effective inter-component flexibility of expenditure will be allowed subject to prior approval of the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying so that the programmes are acceptable to all involved agencies in all parts of the country of continental size.  The project components specially designed to address the existing inadequacies will focus on the hitherto neglected natural mating system as well as the AI  network.

5.2                        All activities consistent with the objectives and essential for implementation  of NPCBB will be covered under the scheme. The Project Components given  below  constitute an indicative but not detailed  list:

5.2.1       Streamlining storage and supply of liquid nitrogen : This is proposed to be accomplished by sourcing supply from industrial gas manufacturers and setting up infrastructure for bulk transport and bulk storage.  

5.2.2                 Introduction of quality bulls with high genetic merit :  This is proposed to be accomplished through field recording programmes by selected  dairy cooperatives, breeders' associations and other suitable agencies; re-organisation and intensification of progeny testing programmes , and setting up   of Open Nucleus Breeding  Systems  (ONBS).

        5.2.3.        Promotion of  private mobile AI practice for door-step delivery of      AI services:  This is proposed to be accomplished through training in AI practice; support for acquisition of equipment; stipend during initial practice period and; provision for regular supply of frozen semen and liquid nitrogen at production cost.

5.2.4.              Conversion of  existing stationary Government AI centres to mobile          practices  :  This  is   proposed   to be achieved by  providing portable liquid nitrogen containers; supply of quality genetic inputs and authorising private practice at farmer's doorstep to provide more effective and timely AI service to bovines.

5.2.5.            Quality  control of goods and  services at sperm  stations, semen                               banks  and  training  institutions : This is proposed to be achieved by  appropriate strengthening of these institutions, laying down standards for bulls/semen  and establishment of a computer network for close monitoring .

        5.2.6.     Study of  breeding systems in areas out of reach of AI : This will be necessary not only to create an understanding  of the systems in vogue and farmers' preferences , but also to bring about systematic improvement in these areas in far larger number of uncovered animals than those presently covered under AI. Many of the owners of good specimens of indigenous breeds in breeding tracts do not accept AI for breeding their animals and resort to natural mating. It will be necessary to provide them access to good quality breeding bulls to avoid degeneration of their stock.

5.2.7.     Institutional restructuring:  It will be necessary to (a) incorporate/nominate specialized autonomous and professional State Implementing Agencies for managing production and supply of genetic inputs and liquid nitrogen on a sustained basis, by building professionalism in breeding operations which is highly lacking today; and (b) set up a specialized National Body   to: (i) provide technical backstopping to the project, (ii) network with scientific institutions ,  ICAR Institutes  and State Agricultural Universities, (iii) operate a national semen grid for identifying and transferring semen to manage optimal use of genetic inputs, (iv) evolve and operationalise national standards for semen production and (v) bring about  improvement of our indigenous breeds,  whose tracts   runs across States, a task highly neglected so far.

        5.2.8.      Other allied activities :   Pre-project survey, project preparation and appraisal as well as rapid computerisation of sperm stations, farms, field performance recording units etc. will also be covered under the Project. 




6.   Integration with other programmes


6.1.      The Departmental programmes on  Central Cattle Breeding Farms (CCBFs),   Central Frozen Semen Production & Training Institute  (CFSP&TI),   Central Herd Registration Scheme (CHRS) and All India Milk Yield Competition  under Animal Husbandry Extension Programme will be synchronised with the National Project for Cattle & Buffalo Breeding so as to draw optimum advantage out of these programmes, particularly in terms of  identification, production and supply of elite germ-plasm, and training of manpower.

6.2.                An installed milk processing capacity  of  30.90  million  litres   per  day   exists   in  the   government  and  co-operative   sectors. Consequent  on the economic  liberalisation, substantial  capability to the extent  of  23.20 million litres per day, has been created  in the private dairy processing sector.  The average capacity utilisation in the sector is a little over 60 %.  For the areas left out of the coverage  of any organised programme of dairy development, a  plan scheme  of  Integrated  Dairy  Development Project  for  Non-operation Flood, backward  and hilly areas has been launched since 1993-94 on 100% grant basis.   Under  this Scheme 35 projects covering 15 states  have already been  initiated and milk processing capacities are thus  being created in such  areas  also.  There  is a need to  build  up  proper scientific  breeding  infrastructure  in so far neglected  areas.  The proposed project will address these areas also.

 6.3.         Some of the components of NPCBB, namely AI centres and  liquid nitrogen storage system, will be eligible for funding from schemes  of the Ministry of Rural Development provided that  proposals for the same are supported by  respective DRDAs. The State Implementing Agencies formed under NPCBB will strive to formulate district plans in consultation with DRDAs  so as to augment fund flow for development of breeding infrastructure. A similar approach will be adopted for multidisciplinary schemes of other Departments having a component for livestock development.  


7.    Implementation Agencies

7.1        Implementation of the project nationally will be spearheaded, co-ordinated and    monitored by a Central Project Management Unit (CPMU) with a core staff of specialized and professional personnel.

7.2.   A State Implementing Agency (SIA) is to be designated by each state for implementation of the Project. An existing autonomous body in the State  having kindred functions is to be entrusted with the responsibility   and only in the absence of such an effective body already existing in a State, would creation of a new structure   be advised.   The participating agencies in the States would also include State Departments of AH, State Co-operative Milk Federations, State Agricultural/Veterinary Universities, non-governmental organizations, breeders' associations, gaushalas etc. who will receive 100 % grant-in-aid for the project activities through the SIA.

7.3.        The State Bodies will be commercially viable enterprises   generating operating incomes  for  meeting  their  establishment  costs  through  operations undertaken. However , in the initial years these bodies will meet their establishment costs with the managerial grants provided under the Project.

7.4.                  Participating agencies under control of Central Government will receive project grants directly from the National Body.







8.            Sanction of State Projects

 The States will be requested to formulate proposals (State sub-projects) as per Guidelines of National Project for Cattle & Buffalo Breeding (Copy enclosed). The state sub-project is to be prepared on the basis of a pre-project survey and situation analysis. The proposals will be scrutinised by the CPMU and sanctions will be issued with approval of competent authority.


9.             Expected Benefits


(i)          Over 70%   bovines are  to be covered under organised breeding programme, which means covering more than double the number covered presently.

(ii)         Door step delivery of AI services to improve accessibility will be adopted in contrast to the present system of taking the animals to stationary AI centres.

(iii)       Some 14,000 private AI practitioners will be introduced for door step delivery of AI, over and above the existing AI workers under Government, Cooperatives and NGOs. This will generate employment and ensure wider coverage.

(iv)       Specialised Agencies will manage breeding operations on scientific lines.

(v)        In order to produce quality bulls to be used for breeding, large scale screening of elite animals from farmers' herds will be conducted.

(vi)       Inferior quality bulls presently used for natural   service will be phased out  and replaced with  pedigreed   bulls.

(vii)     Production of   improved females  will lead to gradual replacement of low   producing   animals.

(viii)    AI network in India will be completely modernised with doubling of capacity for frozen semen production (66 million doses) and assured supply of liquid nitrogen.

(ix)       Specific programmes  will be undertaken to make available trained manpower to sustain the network.

(x)        Use of  quality   bulls and  semen will result in progressive genetic improvement in the bovine population.

(xi)         Specific action to conserve animal genetic diversity among Indian cattle and buffalo breeds and promote breeders' organisations will be undertaken in most States.

(xii)       Although direct benefits will accrue to participating breeders only and indirect benefits of breed improvement and higher productivity will percolate to resource-poor rural families at large.


Appendix -  I


Elements of Expenditure and their phasing


                                                                                                                        (Rs  in crores)                     


Sl. No.

Project Components


(Total 3 years)






Pre project Survey**






Bulk transport, storage and distribution of liquid nitrogen






Support to SIAs, Breeders' Associations, Gaushalas, Cooperatives, NGOs for field                                                                

Recording, Progeny Testing, ONBS, etc.






Acquisition of bulls for Natural Service.






Strengthening of sperm stations  Semen Banks, establishment of new semen Banks, acquisition  of AI bulls, etc.






Design of training modules & manuals and organisation of  training of personnel on AI






Strengthening of existing training centres






Setting up new training centres.






Setting up/conversion of AI centres for mobile practice






Initial managerial grants to  SIAs and grants linked to activities






Central Project Management Unit






Other (Strengthening of farms, procurement of semen &  castrators, settlement of account etc)










250.00 *


* *  Activities relating to pre-project survey has been initiated in ten states (Andhra Pradesh,  Haryana, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh) with limited Swiss assistance available up to middle of 1998-99.                


*      Unspent balance of Rs 1.56 crore adjusted in sanctions issued during 1999-2000.

               Appendix - II

Elements of physical activities and their phasing

Sl. No.

Project Components



3 years)






    (9th Plan)



Pre project survey






Liquid Nitrogen bulk transport storage and distribution






a) Sperm stations






b) Semen Banks






c) Bulk transport system






Support to SIAs, Breeders' Associations, Gaushalas, Cooperatives, NGOs, etc. for






a) field recording






b) progeny testing  *






c) ONBS etc.






Acquisition of bulls for Natural Services






a) Strengthening of sperm stations






b) Strengthening of Semen Banks






c) New Semen Banks






d) Acquisition of AI bulls






Designing Training Modules, Training Manuals and  organising training of






a) Existing AI Workers






b) New AI Workers






c) Professionals






Strengthening of Existing training facilities for






a) AI Workers






b) Professionals






New training facilities for






a) AI Workers






b) Professionals






Conversion/ setting up of AI centres to enable mobile practice






a) Government centres






b) Cooperatives












d) Private






Initial Managerial Grants to SIAs and grants linked to activities






Central Project Management Unit






            @   Figures in parenthesis indicate activity targets in the context of a Plan  outlay of Rs 402.00 crore.

*      Progressive numbers and not annual numbers.








The  scheme  NPCBB is meant to be flexible  and  not restrictive  in  nature  so that each State / UT is able to participate and formulate  a proposal suited to  local situations. States and UTs participating in the Project will receive assistance in  the form of 100% grant-in -aid.  Implementation  of  the  scheme  would entail on the  states decisions on a number of policy issues , a closer study of the cattle and buffalo breeding  situation  in  the states, identification of  major players and developing  synergies among  them etc. Each state would, therefore, go through a critical phase of appraisal and preparation before implementing the scheme and a major thrust is required  to ensure that this phase takes as minimum time as  possible so that the  scheme  is  launched  without much  delay.


Breeding policy for cattle and buffaloes and attention to indigenous breeds.


Massive  expansion  of breeding network envisaged under  NPCBB would yield the desired results only if the same is implemented in the states with a clear-cut breeding  policy and  definite action plan  to operationalise the policy.

  The policy may be  dynamic and consider  inter-alia demand of  milk, requirement of draught animal power  for agricultural  and transportation purposes, need to conserve breeds and breeding tracts, farming systems, production environments and availability of inputs as well as marketing  channels.  If such a policy does not exist, the same has  to be evolved  and followed consistently for a reasonable period, say twenty years, after which the  policy may be  reviewed.

The action  plan may include study  of areas not covered under AI  with a  view  to obtain a  clear picture of natural mating systems so that a  programme of phasing  out  inferior  quality  bulls can be taken  up  by castration of scrub bulls and their replacement  with good quality bulls of a suitable breed or increasing acceptance of  AI.  An  effort  may  have to  be  made to  propagate the advantages of AI among the farmers.

The action plan will also have to address the issue of sourcing quality bulls of each category/genetic make-up, and identify either breeding tracts or breeding farms from where such bulls can be obtained. Simultaneously programmes are to be taken up for production of quality bulls. Dependence on import of exotic bulls/cows will have to be gradually reduced for a variety of reasons, the threat of introducing Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and other diseases being one of them.

The National Project now formulated will comprehensively deal with the problem  and  insist on:

(i)       operationalisation of breeding policy with focus on improvement   of indigenous breeds through programmes in consonance with the policy,

(ii)     Carefully chalking out targeted coverage of breedable female bovines  and demand-supply projections for bulls/semen  with the above mentioned  considerations 

(iii)   identification of good quality breeding bulls of indigenous breeds through field performance recording programmes and their distribution in breeding tracts,

(iv)   promotion of  breeders'  organisations so that major part of  development programmes for indigenous breeds can be entrusted to them,

(v)     adoption of specific programme for improvement of specialised draught breeds like Amritmahal, Nagore, Khillari  etc.

Institutional set up for implementation (Autonomous State Implementing  Agencies):


            It  is  generally  agreed  that  the  present  AI   network and breeding farms, predominantly  under  Government  set up,  suffer  from  institutional deficiencies  and  lack  dynamism,   professionalism  and   autonomy. Therefore,  there  is need to bring the farms, semen stations, liquid nitrogen  installations, frozen semen banks/depots etc.  out of the direct control of  the Government and place them under a suitable autonomous/semi-autonomous state level organization.  This may be achieved either by nominating  an existing  corporation  or similar agency as State Implementing  Agency (SIA) and amending its bye laws to suit the mandate of implementing NPCBB. If no such agency exists a  new State Level Autonomous body may be set up. Care may be taken  to   ensure  that  a  sick  organization  with  liabilities  is not  nominated  for  this  purpose.

The  SIA may take over the assets available  in  the  form of bull mother farms, sperm  stations,  semen banks/depots,  liquid nitrogen plants/installations, training centers etc.  in the Directorate of Animal Husbandry either by  transfer  or through a  suitable lease agreement.  The SIA will receive the project grants directly  from the Project Headquarters and channelise them  to other participating agencies including Directorate of Animal Husbandry and State Agricultural/Veterinary  University/ICAR  Institutes,  etc., either in cash or in kind. Developing  synergies  among  major players in the state will  be  the responsibility of SIA. SIA will  maintain only a core staff component for the project activities and constitute permanent as well as ad-hoc technical committees to provide it the necessary technical advice/input. It will charge for  the goods and services provided  by it    to remain economically viable. The goods and services  provided by SIA in turn would conform to the breeding policy and requirement of the State.

  A time-frame for transfer of assets etc. to SIA will have to be indicated in the proposal. There is also need to frame Memoranda of Understanding among various agencies involved e.g. the State Government, the SIA, milk unions, gaushalas, private AI practitioners, NGOs.

 In the UTs and some smaller States, particularly in the North-East, feasibility and relevance of an SIA at this stage may not exist. Possibilities of creating common facilities under the umbrella of North-eastern Council or Central Agricultural University may, however,  be considered jointly by the North-eastern States.  Such states may clearly indicate their view in the matter while sending proposals.


Salient Features of Memorandum of Understanding among different agencies


I. CPMU and State Implementing Agency (SIA) :     

     1.     The SIA will have a  nominee of CPMU  in its Governing Body.

  2.  The  CPMU will channalize project funds for the state (for all participating  agencies)  through the SIA after the same  is designated  by the state Government.  (Till that time direct assistance to states will be provided by the CPMU for modest expansion  of field AI  networks, replacement of bulls for natural service, limited strengthening of sperm stations and farms and computerized monitoring systems.)                

  3.     One   SIA  from  each  region   (four  in  all)  will   have representation in Project Steering Committee.              

 4.      The  SIA  will  implement  the project  in  conformity  with approved  scheme and the state subproject as well as  action plan approved by CPMU.                                     

    5.       The  SIA  will  follow all quality norms and  standards  for bull,  semen,  semen/ET laboratories etc.  as laid  down  by CPMU  and  seek approval of CPMU for all matters  concerning selection and culling of bulls, strengthening and relocation of sperm stations/ET Centres.                               

    6.       SIA  will keep the CPMU informed of steps taken on all major



       II. The SIA and the State Government :   

1.      The State Government will designate the SIA as the principal implementing  agency  of           the project in the state and provide it similar  autonomy  of  functioning as   provided  to  public  sector corporations/ exclusively state funded registered societies.

2.  The State Government will transfer the sperm stations, semen banks,  LN2  plants and one or two selected farms  operating under the Directorate of Animal Husbandry to the SIA.      

3.  The  SIA  will  produce/arrange bulls and semen in  conformity  with breeding  policy adopted by the state Government for  cattle and buffalo.                                               

4.     The State Government will convert all stationary Government AI Centres   to   mobile  practices   and  will  permit   Government inseminators to practice doorstep AI  and charge a fee for the service.                                               

 5. The  State  Government   will make  appropriate  arrangement  for training of private AI  practitioners and their deployment for doorstep services.                                     

 6.  The State Government will provide adequate budget provisions to    the State Department of Animal Husbandry to enable  them pay  the price of semen and liquid nitrogen supplied to  the Departmental AI  Centre. 


III.    The SIA and Non-Government Participating Agencies :        

1.  The Non-Government agency will co-opt a nominee of SIA in its Governing Body.                                             

                 2.    Assets  created  with  grants  from   SIA  will  remain  its property.                                                  

  3.    Incremental  produce arising out of SIA sponsored   programmes        will  be shared between SIA and Participating Agency.


Personnel Policy and Human Resource Development:

The States will be required to undertake a thorough assessment of the technical manpower so as to enable  positioning of appropriate persons at key posts at sperm-stations, farms, breeding projects etc. It  is  to  be ensured  that  appropriately  qualified/trained persons are  posted in such positions and given a reasonable tenure.

 Government AI functionaries presently performing AI from stationary AI centers will have to be given freedom to doorstep AI practice beyond usual duty hours to improve area and population under coverage of such centers The training  and  retraining  needs of professionals  and  AI workers should receive continued and focussed attention, and strengthening or establishment of training institutes will have to be taken up on the basis of training requirements.


Supplementation of  fund-flow from sources other than NPCBB


It  is  also expected  that  after expansion of the breeding network  with  central assistance  the states will have to augment fund flow from their side towards recurring  costs of maintaining and operating  the  expanded network.

 Augmenting  fund flow through bilateral / multilateral projects having livestock component as well as multidisciplinary schemes of Ministry of Rural Development, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Department of Women & Child Development, Department of Biotechnology  etc. will have to be attempted. This aspect is  to  be kept in view while formulating the proposals.

  Creation of a District level implementation committee under the Chairmanship of the Collector may further facilitate such purposes by way of drawing  up concrete district plans under such schemes.





Institutionalising mechanisms for review and monitoring :


A  high level review committee at the state level should be set up  to  review  progress  of technical, physical and financial parameters quarterly and remove bottlenecks  quickly, particularly with respect to sperm-stations, farms and AI centers. The  activity  components proposed to be taken up under the state sub-project should  have quantifiable  targets  and  a  time  frame so  that  progress  can  be monitored  periodically.

 It will be necessary to develop a  Management Information  System (MIS)  and  install computers in key  positions  to facilitate close monitoring.    The review committee  may  also  keep a close watch on the  activities to avoid duplication  and develop synergies among players. 

An effective mechanism  has to be evolved to reduce the gestation period of  breeding projects to the barest minimum. Streamlining procurement / purchase procedures to cut down delay in initiating the programmes will have to be given priority. A similar approach will be necessary on construction activities required for project implementation.

 Annual Report of progress in prescribed format may be published by the SIA  and circulated to all concerned and the same may be discussed in Annual Workshop involving participating agencies and experts.

 Over and above these state level monitoring mechanism, there will be a two - tier monitoring mechanism in the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying at the level of  a Steering Committee and the Central Project Management Unit (CPMU). 


Cost recovery of inputs & services and budgetary support to departmental field AI network


            The SIA mechanism suggested earlier will be crucial to success of the project.   To ensure sustainability and viability of SIA it will be necessary to adopt a policy of recovering cost of inputs and services provided by the SIA from the beneficiary farmers.   The Departmental field AI network will, in most cases, be the largest bulk customer of the SIA. They will have to  purchase semen, liquid nitrogen etc. but deposit the receipts accrued through breeding services to appropriate Government Account. Therefore, adequate budgetary provision  commensurate with scale of  field AI operation   is to be made by the Department.


Measures to ensure quality of goods and services


            The  State Governments  will be required to pay special attention to quality of goods and services required for breeding cattle and buffalo and devise a system in consultation with involved agencies towards formulation of standards for the same. The measures initiated should cover live animals (cows and bulls), equipment, consumables / reagents, semen, embryo etc. The standards / specifications thus formulated will apply both to procurement and supply.


Activity components that may be funded

(State Governments are requested to provide year-wise break up  of physical targets and financial requirements. After the project grants are received,  inter-component re-allocation of expenditure and revision of targets may be made only with prior concurrence of The Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying ).


(a) Institutional Restructuring

(i)            Nomination / Incorporation / Creation of SIA

(Managerial grant for three years limited to

an annual ceiling of Rs 30.00 lakh)

(ii)          Computerization / MIS

(iii)         Studies / Surveys


(b) Manpower Development

(i)            Strengthening of training infrastructure

(ii)          Training costs of  professionals and AI workers

(iii)         Farmers' camp/campaign/orientation

(iv)        Seminar/workshop

(v)          Tapering grant/stipend to private AI workers


(c)  Strengthening of frozen semen network

(i)            Strengthening of sperm stations

(ii)          Strengthening of FS Bank/Depot

(iii)         Liquid nitrogen bulk storage and supply

(iv)        Strengthening/expansion of field AI network


(d) Breed improvement / Bull production

(i)            Strengthening of farms/ET Centres

         Assistance to other participating agencies

(Milk Unions/Gaushala / NGO /Breeders' Associations, etc.)

(ii)          Breed improvement programmes for buffalo, crossbred &        

indigenous  cattle :

(Field recording / Progeny Testing / procurement /

distribution of bulls / mass castration etc.)


(e)         Miscellaneous (Minor activities not covered  above)


Pre-project survey, project preparation and submission of proposal


A situation analysis concerning past programmes (State Plan, Centrally Sponsored, Bilateral/Multilateral), role and capabilities of different players and their area of operation etc. will have to be undertaken to  understand existing weaknesses and avoid duplication of activities.

The State sub-projects of NPCBB should strive at optimal resource utilisation and hence discourage avoidable expenditure / creation of additional infrastructure. Special attention is to be paid to re-commissioning idle / damaged but repairable equipment wherever possible and proposal for fresh procurement be made only after making a realistic  assessment of the need.

The  states  would, therefore, be required to articulate their views on the issues mentioned above and formulate  a single comprehensive  proposal for the respective state covering the requirement of all major players involved in cattle and buffalo breeding. A detailed pre-project survey enabling objective assessment of the impact of  NPCBB on cattle and buffalo breeding scenario in the state will precede project preparation. Five copies of the proposal may be submitted to Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying, Ministry of Agriculture.





Justification for SIA


1.                  Implementation of cattle and buffalo breeding programmes through a State Implementing Agency (SIA) outside the Government Department is felt necessary because of following reasons:


(a)             Production, management and distribution of breeding inputs as well as chalking out breeding activities require professional skill  and continuity of direction.  Inter-transferability in the government set up creates problem in this regard. Nor it is possible to provide adequate functional autonomy in the field formations in a government set up though the same is essential for taking timely and prompt actions.


(b)            Assistance provided to a number of states under Centrally Sponsored Schemes on Cattle and Buffalo Breeding often did not reach the user agency in time, as a result of which envisaged targets could not be achieved. To compound the problem, the revenue earning units in Government set-up have to deposit the receipts to the state exchequer and depend solely on budgetary support which, more often than not, depends on the ways and means position of the state regardless of revenue earning potential of the unit.


(c)             Substantial investment is required not only to create infrastructure for production/distribution of quality breeding inputs but also to maintain the infrastructure in optimal functional condition. Goods and services provided by these infrastructures can create sufficient revenue to meet the recurring expenses if cost recovery and recycling of receipts are allowed. These are intimately linked to the sustenance of the breeding operations but become difficult to achieve if the agency engaged in production of breeding input is in the government set up.


(d)            Entrusting the entire gamut of activities relating to production of breeding inputs to a specialized professional semi-autonomous agency in major cattle and buffalo rearing States will foster healthy competition among various SIAs which will enhance the quality of goods and services.


(e)             The SIA concept emerged as a viable alternative through deliberations of Expert Groups and workshops involving all major stake holders.


2.                  The Department  of Animal Husbandry in the States is the most predominant player in the area of production, distribution and supply of breeding inputs and services, and any measure towards reform would logically start from the Departmental organisations directly under the control of the Government.


3.                  The EFC while approving the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and its implementation through SIAs observed that efforts may be made to avoid creation of new organizations.  Wherever possible an existing autonomous/ semi autonomous organization engaged in similar activities is to be entrusted the responsibilities.  It is, however, to be kept in view that an existing sick organization with liabilities is not nominated as SIA for implementing NPCBB.   Where there is no scope of designating an existing organization as SIA even with suitable modification in its bye-laws and mandate, creation of a new organization will be considered. 


Structure of SIA


4.                  The Animal Husbandry Department in the State will be the nodal Department for the SIA.  The SIA   will take over from the State Department of Animal Husbandry all Sperm Stations, Frozen Semen Banks/Depots, Liquid Nitrogen Plants, Large capacity storage and transport facilities for Liquid Nitrogen and a few selected cattle/buffalo farms necessary for production of breeding inputs.  Unless volunteered by extra- departmental agencies, similar infrastructure owned by them may not be transferred to the SIA  to avoid conflicting organisational loyalties in the newly nominated/ created organisation in the initial years.   This mechanism will also ensure autonomy of functioning in those units in the government set-up which required it most.


5.                  The Governing Body/Board of Directors  of the SIA will have representative from all major players engaged in cattle and buffalo breeding activities in the State, the representation being commensurate with the stake/contribution of such organization in the cattle and buffalo breeding activities in the State. The SIA will also have in its Governing Body/ Board of Directors   a representative of the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Ministry of Agriculture.   The Secretary, Department of Animal Husbandry in the State will be the Chairman of SIA and an animal breeding /reproduction specialist will be recruited as the Chief Executive of the SIA.


Recruitment of manpower in SIA


6.                  The SIA Head quarters will be manned by a core group of professionals and limited supporting staff to maintain the establishment cost of SIA to the barest minimum.  A similar approach will be adopted by the SIA while engaging personnel in its field units.  Initially the personnel will be drawn from the State Department of Animal Husbandry.  If   suitable man power is not available, recruitment from extra- departmental sources may be considered to keep the SIA functioning.  This will ensure that there is proportionate reduction of manpower in the department while ensuring availability of adequate qualified personnel in the SIA. 


Mandate, Resources and MOU


7.                  The mandate of the SIA will be clearly defined by the State Government. Production of breeding inputs to run the programmes in conformity with the breeding policy of the State would be entrusted to the SIA.


8.                  One important mandate of the SIA will be to develop synergies among different players and associate them in the programmes.  This will be necessary   to avoid duplication of activities and to ensure optimum results out of the programmes supported under the NPCBB.


9.                  There will be Memorandum of Understanding between the SIA and other agencies participating in the programme.  Central grants will be channelized  by the project authorities in the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Ministry of Agriculture through the SIA.  This mechanism appears to be essential to keep the cattle and buffalo breeding programmes supported under the NPCBB immune to the ways and means position of the State.


10.              The SIA will charge for the goods and services provided by it and meet its establishment cost out of profit  to remain financially viable. Initial managerial grants will, however, be available for a few years to allow the SIA to break even.


Conceptual inputs on technical matters


11.              The SIA will constitute permanent as well as ad-hoc advisory committees to provide it the necessary scientific and technical input.  Such advisory committees may have representation from various players in the State involved  in the area of cattle and buffalo breeding.


Monitoring and Reporting


12.              The SIA will develop in-house monitoring mechanism to assess impact of the programmes on a regular basis and report the same to the State Government and   Project Authorities in the Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying. The SIA will also be responsible for reporting, through the State Government, utilisation of project grants channelised through it.


Existing SIAs


13.              The state of Kerala had an autonomous body in the form of Kerala Livestock Development Board (KLDB) even before the concept of SIA was mooted under the NPCBB. During 9th Plan period the states of Madhya Pradesh,  Punjab and West Bengal identified an existing quasi-government body in the State as the principal implementing agency for centrally sponsored programmes on cattle and buffalo breeding, and the states of Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana created new organisatins in the line of SIA which are at various levels of  functioning and development. Maharashtra has also initiated the process of creation of an SIA like body.


Bye-laws of SIA


14.              While acceptance of the SIA mechanism by a number of major cattle and buffalo rearing states is encouraging, it is necessary to closely scrutinise the bye-laws and article of association of these organisations so that any modifications required in them, for the purpose of implementing NPCBB can be suggested to the respective states. Points mentioned at para 4 are particularly relevant because transfer of government assets is generally a complicated business and it will be prudent at this stage not to burden the SIA in its formative years with avoidable complications.


Five Year Income-Expenditure Profile of a

  State Implementing Agency (SIA)

and Economic Viability

                                     (Rs in crores)


Sl. No.

Income-Expenditure Sources















Sale of frozen semen(1-5 million doses)







Sale of liquid nitrogen (0.5-1.5 million. lits)







Sale of breeding stock from ONBS farms

(50 bulls+50 cows)







Managerial grant for the project







Total Income















Cost of frozen semen(1-5 million doses)







Cost of liquid nitrogen(0.5-1.5 million lts)







Cost of breding stock from ONBS farms







Board's overheads







Total Expenditure


















(i)      Cost  of semen and liquid nitrogen (Rs 9 per dose and Rs 14 per litre     respectively,    supplied  to  the inseminator) include production/procurement  costs, storage and delivery costs as well as handling losses  and  the Board's overheads for supervision.  The selling prices under income  are MRP (Rs  10 per dose and Rs  15 per litre) including the Board's margins.  The contributions exhibited are net surpluses.                     


(ii)    Breeding  stock  produced under the ONBS are  genetically evaluated animals  (proven  bulls  and bull-mothers) and are therefore priced  at rates applicable  for the highest quality genetic material, Rs  1,00,000/- per bull and Rs  50,000/-  for  breeding  female and are meant exclusively  for institutions engaged  in  breeding  and  multiplication of seed stock  and  sperm stations producing  frozen semen.  The costs under the ONBS are the all-inclusive costs for the  running of the breeding farm where ONBS/MOET are used to produce genetically evaluated stock.                                                 


(iii)   The Board's over heads exhibited cover the salaries and housekeeping expenses of the Board Head Office.                                            


(iv)  The post 5th year income profile will be even more favourable to the Board  as the activities of the Board under phase II of the project will boost the turnover of  the  Board  and consequently  its   margins of  surplus,  enabling  it  to set  apart  a

  depreciation fund to avoid obsolescence.








1.                  There are 289 million cattle and buffalo in the country.  Their average low productivity   is a matter of concern. The fact that nearly 80 % of the cattle and 60 % of buffaloes do not belong to any defined breed makes a strong case for their genetic up-gradation on priority basis.


2.                  Government interventions so far towards delivery of breeding inputs was primarily through setting up of AI centers where the farmers had to bring their animals to receive the breeding inputs.  Constrained delivery of government AI service provided from stationary AI Centres, and absence of coordinated direction and control over operations, resulted in low efficiency of AI services with an  overall conception rate less than 20 %. Experience shows that mobile outlets perform far larger number of inseminations than stationary centers with better conception rates.


3.                  Despite building up a substantial infrastructure for cattle and buffalo breeding in the form of  63 sperm stations, nearly 40000 AI Outlets performing about 22 million inseminations annually and over 200 cattle and buffalo breeding farms, a major chunk of which is in Government sector,  proportion of breedable bovines under coverage of artificial insemination is around 20% only. This calls for measures to increase  both the number of outlets and the coverage per AI outlet to send the breeding inputs to the farmer's doorstep


4.                  Studies and surveys, cutting across regions and states, highlighted that stationary Government AI center being solely dependant upon Government towards supply of liquid nitrogen and semen doses frequently suffer  breakdown because of budgetary constraints on recurring expenditure leading to loss of credibility of AI network in the eyes of farmers. 


Stipulations under NPCBB


5.                  The proposed 9th Plan Centrally Sponsored Scheme National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding   has the following major objectives

(a) to arrange delivery of vastly improved artificial insemination service at the farmers doorstep;

(b) to progressively bring under organized breeding all breedable females among cattle and buffalo through artificial insemination or natural service by high quality bulls, within a period of 10 years;

 (c) to undertake breed improvement programme for indigenous cattle and buffalo breeds so as to improve their genetic qualities as well as their availability; and

(d)             to provide quality breeding inputs in breeding tracts of important indigenous breeds so as to prevent the breeds from deterioration and extinction.


6.                  Around 79 million breedable bovines targetted to be covered under the project, which are 74% of total adult female population of 107 million .Out of 79 million females to be covered , 45 million (57% )  will be covered through AI and 34 million ( 43% ) will be covered through natural service.




7.                  Promotion of private mobile AI service for doorstep delivery of AI, and conversion of existing stationery government centres into mobile centres are part of the strategies for achievement of the above mentioned objectives.

8.                  In view of the fact that a little over 37,000 stationary centers and a little less than 3,000 mobile AI workers are already  available, it will be necessary  to introduce about 14,000 additional mobile AI workers, even after conversion of  the  existing stationary centers to mobile, to achieve the intended coverage.

9.                  A number of studies and surveys, cutting across regions and states, highlighted that farmers are willing to pay for AI if  the quality of goods and services are adequate and  conception is ensured within a reasonable period of time. This willingness on the part of the farmer is proposed to be transformed to a mechanism of cost recovery for quality services so that private initiatives in field AI network can be sustained.



10.              In this backdrop introduction of private AI workers appear to be the only feasible solution consistent with the objective and time frame of NPCBB. Needless to say that the entire AI network will have to follow quality standards for the desired results and skill up-gradation of workers at all levels will be achieved through a coordinated human resource development programme.


Selection , Training and Modalities of Implementation


11.              14,000   AI workers to be inducted during Ist Phase of the project will be chosen from unemployed rural youth  so as to generate employment and avoid addition of establishment cost for the Government Department. These workers will be chosen from the local area as they know the area and utility of the timely AI service.  They will also be able to supplement their income without  leaving  their native place.  Artificial Insemination is a skilled zoo-technique and requires minimum academic standards.  It will not be proper  to fix the minimum qualification for this below 10th class and it may not be necessary to look for higher qualification beyond 10+2.  Between these two qualifications the States will be given flexibility to select the AI workers.  Minimum age for AI workers may fixed at 18 years.

12.              A private AI worker will be required to (i)  understand the basic reproductive process in females bovine and (ii) to distinguish pathological conditions from normal conditions, condition of the cervix and upper parts of the uterine horns during pregnancy and (iii) identify animals in heat.  Therefore, they are to be given both theoretical and practical training to equip themselves to perform AI.  The practical training should include passing AI gun on morbid genitalia as well as live animals.  To achieve the desired skill , training period of less than three months will be grossly inadequate and more than six months would not be required.  It will be better if they are given training at a place not far off from their residence.


Incentive Packages


13.              The AI workers will be offered   training as well as  cryogenic containers and the AI kit on completion of training.  It will be necessary for them to procure either a motor bike or a moped  on loan so that they can carry out mobile AI practice.     A suitable Memorandum of Understanding /agreement is to be made with the private AI worker to ensure that the investment made in training and equipping them does not go waste and recoveries can be made from the defaulters.

14.              It may also be necessary to provide stipend during training and a tapering grant during initial practice  period. The requirement for such incentive packages will vary from state to state and even among areas within a state and will primarily depend on acceptability and scope of AI. The concept of mobile AI workers has already been put to practice in various States who have generally tapped extra-departmental funds available from multidisciplinary rural development projects. The NPCBB will encourage similar augmentation of fund flow.

15.              The incentive packages, minimum qualifications, training period etc., will also vary from place to place.     There is need to develop a more or less standardized training programme for  the private AI workers so that same degree of result can be expected through out the country.  It will be prudent to leave the exact incentive package to the States giving them a broad framework. For areas with well established AI network, minimum incentive package (training, cryogenic container and AI kit) will be the norm.


Monitoring and Control


16.              The private AI workers inducted in locations will have to be registered and brought under the control of the District Animal Husbandry Officer who will monitor performance of the AI worker, ensure maintenance of breeding records and recommend further re-training of the worker if the skills attained are not adequate.


Anticipated objections and clarifications thereof 


17.              Reservations have been expressed in some quarters about desirability of inducting large number of private AI Practitioners and risk of damage to genitalia or spread of infection / infertility.  Most of these reservations are unfounded in the context of NPCBB because the scheme will not only insist on standardized training for these AI workers ,it will have in-built monitoring mechanism for their performance by qualified departmental staff.


18.              Throughout the world artificial insemination is done by auxiliary staff trained for that purpose with much higher conception rate than the average conception rate of AI workers, government or otherwise, in India.  There is no other way of meeting the requirement of wider coverage under AI.


19.               It is also relevant to mention that practice of artificial insemination by private AI worker is in existence in India for almost 25 years.  Many of the Operation Flood Cooperatives initiated A.I. in their areas by training workers for a duration lesser than one month. A few prominent Non-government Organizations have also trained substantial number of Private AI workers as part of rural development efforts.  Some of the States have very enthusiastically gone ahead with training local villagers in artificial insemination under various programmes like Gopal Yojana in Rajasthan.  A number of World Bank assisted projects in various States also have provision for providing AI service through Paravets.


20.               Therefore, induction of Private AI workers under NPCBB is  not an altogether novel approach but a rational  synthesis of opportunities to meet the requirements of the country in a time-frame.







21.              Under the IVC Act artificial insemination is not defined as a veterinary service, nor specifically mentioned as a minor veterinary service.  As mentioned above, workers without veterinary qualifications deliver this service throughout the World.  There would, therefore, be no objection to treat AI as a Minor Veterinary Service under the Act to be performed under the supervision/guidance of a qualified Veterinarian.   Declaring it so officially through a notification in the Gazette is the prerogative of a State Department of Animal Husbandry.  The NPCBB will strive to achieve this so that private AI workers can be registered and monitored. 


22.              A cost benefit analysis of the private AI workers with minimum incentive package is enclosed. Monthly income with no incentive and a moped for mobility comes to a little over Rs 2300/-while that with incentive package and a motorbike for mobility monthly income is estimated at over Rs 6200/-.


Income-Expenditure Profile and Viability of  Private AI Practice



Sl. No.

Investment Details




Sl. No.

Income-expenditure Profile








Practice with Motor Bike Annual Income



3 lit.   LN2 Container-I



Service Fee for  3000 AI/year



35 lit. LN2 Container-I






AI Kit



Annual Expenditure



Telephone Connection



Loan and Interest Repayment






Cost of Semen & LN2






Propulsion charges






Vehicle Maintenance



Motor Bike



Total Annual Expenditure.












Net Income(Living Income) Without Assistance Package



Total Investments



with Assistance Package



Practice with Motor Bike






Practice with Moped



Practice with Moped






Annual Income






Service Fee for 1500 AI/year






Annual Expenditure






Loan and Interest Repayment






Cost of Semen and LN2






Propulsion Charges






Vehicle Maintenance






Total Annual Expenditure






Net Income(Living

Income) Without Assistance Package






With Assistance Package



 Notes :                                                                                 


1.   Service Fee for door-step delivery of AI reckoned at Rs.60.00/AI                   

2.   Three Year Term Loans / Lease Finance  with 13.50 % interest and repayment in 36 installments.                                                        

3.  Assistance Package  comprising the Equipment as a one time grant (less 20 per cent Beneficiary's     contribution).                                     

4.    Since stationary A.I. centres will continue to provide services and natural service  system will be revamped, poor farmers are unlikely to be at a disadvantage because of promotion of private A.I. workers.

5.    Better and more liberal Assistance Packages exist in some of the States                                                                                              


















A.                General

1. (a)    Eighth Plan target & allocation and expenditure &  achievements on schemes relating to cattle and buffalo  breeding.

    (b)    Ninth Plan Allocations  in State Plan on Cattle and buffalo breeding projects and allocations and expenditures for 1997-98,1998-99 and 1999-2000.

2.             Institutional mechanism, if any, for review of progress (Management/Monitoring Committee).

3.         Brief account of participation in Centrally Sponsored Projects and achievements thereof.

4.         Brief account of participation in bilateral / multilateral projects and achievements thereof.

5.         Role of major players in cattle and buffalo breeding

            a) State DAH

            b) Cooperative Dairy Federation/ NGO/Breed Society/Gaushala

            d) University/ICAR Institute/KVK, etc.

            e) Corporation/autonomous bodies.

            f) Bilateral / Multilateral Aid Agencies

            g) Others

6.                   Composition of cattle and buffalo population

 (estimates to be provided district-wise in the format given in Annexure- I)      

7.                 Importance of cattle and buffalo in the state with special reference to indigenous breeds and Breeding Policy for them (Copy of notification to be enclosed).

8.                Breeding programmes ,their area of operation, objectives and output, preferably with a location map of the project area.

9.                   Map showing important infrastructure/institutions with distance from District Head quarters.

10.               Production environment and District-wise profile of farmers (Annexure- II)

11.               Details of rate-contract with manufacturers / suppliers of equipment /

Consumables (item-wise) required for breeding activities and tenure of its validity.


B.            Information on Present Infrastructure 

I.             Delivery network for  breeding inputs (Annexure - III)

II.                Important Breeding  Infrastructures and their location                                                                                                                                                                              (Installed Capacity & Capacity Utilization to be

indicated wherever applicable)

1.          Frozen Semen Bull (Sperm) Stations (Govt./ Coop./ NGO/ Private)

(Questionnaire attached)

        2.    F.S. Banks / Depots

        3.    LN2 Plants

        4.    Bulk Supply tankers for LN2/Industrial gas transporters

        5.         Industrial gas manufacturer/Fertilizer plant/ Steel plant

        6.          Training facilities

        7.          Farms/Goushalas (Breed, strength of breedable females, farm standard, functional parameters).  (Questionnaire attached).

        9.          Breeding tracts of indigenous breeds (Distt./Taluka etc. breed-wise) and estimated population of breeds.

10.       Milk Union / Federation (by no. of DCS / members)

11.       No. of chilling plants and their capacity

12.       Performance recording network, No. of recording centers, and No. of Animals under record


III.             Other related Institutions

(Vety. dispensary, hospital, polyclinic, diagnostic & pathological lab. etc.)                      

C.      Functional


1.         No. of AI done, semen produced, semen purchased ( breed/genetic group-wise)

[Indigenous, Crossbred, Exotic, Buffalo ]

2.         LN2 consumed, produced and purchased.

3.         Quality of bulls used for semen production, mode of selection

4.     Categorization of AI Centres as per No. of AI per year

        5.          Conception rate and the basis of calculating the same

        6.    Milk production

        7.    Processing facilities

        8.    Field recording network ,  their area of operation and productivity of the recorded animals

        9.          Schemes on calf rearing, fodder production and their area of operation

       10.   No. of vaccinations (disease-wise).

       11.          Mechanism for TB./JD./brucellosis /IBR detection

       12.   No. of abortions and birth defects reported


D.                General economic parameters

        1.    Cost of feed and fodder

2.         General fodder situation, with reference to areas with adequate availability and deficit areas

3.         Areas with endemic deficiency of minerals and micro/nutrients

        4.    Cost of live animals, both male and female, adults and          calves

        5.    Price of milk

        6.          Service charges for natural service/AI


E.           Demand and supply of bulls and semen (Annexure - IV)          


F.              Targetted coverage of bovine females, production of bulls  and semen 

(Annexure - V)


G.           Activity components that may be funded 

        (State Government should provide year-wise break up

          of physical targets and financial requirements)


(a) Institutional restructuring

(i)            Nomination / Incorporation / Creation of SIA

(ii)                (Managerial grant for three years limited to an annual ceiling of Rs    30.00 lakh)

(iii)         Computerization / MIS

(iv)         Studies / Surveys

(b) Manpower development

(i)            Strengthening of training infrastructure

(ii)           Training costs of  professionals and AI workers

(iii)         Farmers' camp/campaign/orientation

(iv)         Seminar/workshop

(v)          Tapering grant to private AI workers

(c) Strengthening of frozen semen network

(i)            Strengthening of sperm stations

(ii)           Strengthening of FS Bank/Depot

(iii)         Liquid nitrogen bulk storage and supply

(iv)         Strengthening/expansion of field AI network

(d) Breed improvement / bull production

(i)            Strengthening of farms/ET centres

(ii)           Assistance to other participating agencies

(iii)         (Milk Unions/Gaushala / NGO /Breeders' Associations, etc.)

(iv)         Breed improvement programmes for Buff.,C.B. & Indg.cattle

(v)            (Field recording / progeny testing / procurement / distribution of bulls etc.)

       (e) Miscellaneous


H.    Explanatory note justifying the activity components & cost estimates and

       indicating benefits of the proposed state project with reference to items 1 to 13

       at G  above :


I.             Salient Features of Memorandum of Understanding among different agencies                                                                        


J.          Estimated investment out of  assistance proposed to be used for benefit of

           S.C. / S.T. and no. of such beneficiaries, preferably district-wise :


K.         Additional comments relevant to the proposal :

Questionnaire  on  Frozen Semen Bull (Sperm) Stations

(To be provided for each station separately)


        A.  General


              1. Location and exact postal address with

                 PIN Code and telephone No.

              2. Year of Establishment and brief

                 history (i.e established with Central

                 assistance/as an Externally Assisted

                 Project/a project under ICAR-SAU)

             3. Designation of Officer in charge

                 and his academic qualification/


              4.Envisaged annual capacity,targets &

                current production:


                                                  Capacity                   Target                    Achievement


                 (a) No.of bulls

                 (b) No. of doses

                      (in lakhs)

              5. Present stock of F.S. doses (breed-wise)

              6. Whether manual filling or

                   automatic filling

              7.(a) Type of straws used

                    (German or medium/mini French)

                (b) Manufacturer of straws used

                (c) Cost at which empty straws

                     are procured    

              8. Composition of diluter

              9. Major clients

                 (State DAH & Coop./other states/NGO/Private)

             10. Sale price of semen/dose

             11. Production cost of semen/ dose

             12. Freezing protocol

             13. Source of bulls

             14. Criteria for selection of bulls

                 (Pedigree records, andrological examination,

                  karyotyping, disease testing etc.)

             15. Protocol for andrological examination/disease testing

                   of bulls and microbial test of semen.

             16. Field feed back mechanism to obtain bull-wise

                   conception rate, sex ratio, abortion, birth defect etc.

             17. Staff strength

                   a) Veterinary

                   b) Others

             18. Mode of disposal of bulls







B. Infrastructure


              1. Housing for bulls


                   i) No. of bull sheds

                  ii) Total housing capacity

                         (No. of bulls and followers)

              2. Fodder cultivation


                   i) Area under cultivation (ha.)

                       a) Irrigated

                       b) Unirrigated

                  ii) Total annual fodder production

                          (green/dry in metric tonnes)

              3. Annual purchase of fodder

                          (green/dry in metric tonnes)

              4. Lab space (sq.ft.) and lab design

                  (enclose lay out)


              5. Liquid nitrogen supply

                 i)    Make and capacity of plant

                 ii)   Year of installation

                 iii)  Hours run since installation

                 iii)  Current production/hour

iv)        Whether annual maintenance contract exists

v)         If not, how repairs are effected 


              6. LN2 refrigerators/containers (size & No.)


              7. Equipment


                   i) Printing machine

                  ii) Filling & sealing machine

                 iii) Photometer

                  iv) Phase contrast microscope

                   v) Laminar flow  unit

                  vi) Cold handling cabinet

                 vii) Semen analyzer

                viii) Biological freezer

                  ix) Equipment for sterilization of glass ware/

                        plastic consumables

                   x) Others





 C. Bulls and semen (bull-wise)


              1. Identification No.

              2. Breed/genetic type

              3. Date of birth

              4. Source

              5. Sire

              6. Quality of sire

              7. Dam

              8. Quality of dam

              9. Date of Procurement

             10. Date of first collection

             11. Average No. of collection/year

             12. Average No. of semen doses/year

             13. No. of doses in stock

             14. Conception rate

             15. Progeny performance

             16. Sex ratio among progeny


        D. Disposal of bulls (bull-wise, since inception)


              1. Identification No.

              2. Breed/genetic group

              3. Date of birth

              4. Date of procurement

              5. Date of first collection

              6. Date of last collection

              7. Date of disposal/death

              8. Tenure at the sperm station

              9. Total No. of collections

             10. Total No. of frozen semen doses

             11. Reasons for disposal

                   i) Age

                  ii) Poor sperm quality

                 iii) Poor freezibility

                  iv) Lack of libido

                   v) Others

             12. Mode of disposal



Questionnaire on Farms / Goshalas

(To be provided for each farm separately and

 information on iv & v to be provided breed-wise)


(i)                  Location and exact postal address with

PIN Code and telephone No

(ii)            Year of establishment and brief

                             history (i.e established with central

                             assistance/as an externally assisted

                             project/a project under ICAR-SAU) 

(iii)            Designation of Officer-in-charge

                             and his/her academic qualification/ specialization

(iv)              Age group and sex-wise herd strength

(v)               Age (order of lactation) and production (best lactation) profile of milch cows/buffaloes (to be presented in tabular form, splitting the range of production from the farm standard to the best production record of existing animals into three categories)   





Production range I

Production range II

Production range IIII


I Lactation







II Lactation







III Lactation







IV Lactation







Above IV Lactation














(vi)              Farm-standard, breeding policy and general feeding and management practices

(vii)            Disease testing calendar and protocol

(viii)           Whether natural service allowed or AI practised exclusively

(ix)              Annual culling rate, wet and herd averages of past five years

(x)               Area under cultivation (irrigated and rainfed)

(xi)              Equipment available for mechanised farming

(xii)            Quantity of fodder procured annually from outside

(xiii)           Mode of milking(manual/machine)

(xiv)          Mode of disposal of milk

(xv)            Off-take of male calves for breeding purposes (annual)

Annexure - I

Composition of cattle and buffalo population in thousand  heads - District-wise estimates










Indigenous breeds  *





Descript breeds



a. Total              male









b. Total female









c. Breedable female









































































































*   If there are more than one indigenous breeds, breed-wise estimates, wherever available, are to be given.


Annexure - II


District-wise profile of Farmers

(population in thousands)







No. of inhabited villages

Human population


Size of holding





Small farmer

Marginal farmer

Landless labourers


Scheduled castes

Scheduled tribes
























































































































                *    If there are concentration of peri-urban dairies details of such locations may also be provided.




Annexure -III


District-wise breeding network



Breedable bovine population


Artificial insemination centers

Total No. of AI/ year

% population covered under AI

No of  centers/

units providing  natural service



































































































































































DAH - Director of Animal Husbandry;  OF Coop -  Operation Flood Cooperative; 

NON-OF Coop - Non Operation Flood Cooperative; NGO - Non-Government Organisations.


Annexure - IV


Demand and supply of bulls and semen



For artificial insemination

For natural service


Semen (in million doses)










(a) Demand










(b) Supply










(c) Shortfall




















Bulls (in Nos.)










(a) Demand