Your Career as a Veterinarian

 

A veterinarian is a person who not only treats animals but also helps animals to remain in good health. Veterinary profession is suitable for those who love animals and has a compassionate predisposition for animals. Primary object of a veterinarian is to render service to the community by facilitating health care of animals, ensuring veterinary public health, caring for sick animals and alleviating their sufferings. Whosoever chooses the profession assumes the obligation to conduct oneself in accordance with the noble ideals of serving the dumb and mute creatures. She/He shall conduct herself/himself with propreity and professionalism which shall be obvious in all actions of her/his life. It shall be necessary for a veterinarian to be temperate in all matters of practice of profession and to exercise clear and vigorous application of mind. A veterinarian shall merit the trust and confidence of the clients, rendering their animals with full measure of service and devotion. Since animals are not able to verbally explain their pain and suffering, a veterinarian has to study the animal behaviour that helps diagnosing any expression of pain or abnormal behaviour.

 

Remember that it is a profession where service delivery with compassion is of primary importance; rewards and remuneration are of secondary importance.

 

  1. Brief historical background of Veterinary Science in India
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    Veterinary Science was well developed in India as early as Vedic period. Atharava Veda (1500-500 B.C.) has reference on horse management and treatment, elephant management and health care etc. Emperor Ashoka the grandson of Chandra Gupta Maurya who turned to Buddhism, had given Veterinary Science in India a new turn. It is described that world’s first veterinary hospital on record, existed in Ashoka’s regime. (Schwabe C.W. 1978; Cattle, Priests and Progress in Medicine, University Minnesota Press Pp 13 & 1331).

    During the period of Ashoka, human and animal hospitals existed side by side. The Veterinarians were among the few privileged persons who had an endowment of land from the ruler. Medicines and herbs were regularly supplied and were even imported when needed. Large areas were earmarked for cultivating medicinal plants and herbs. Hospitals had well defined wards, where patients were housed and treated indoors. The Baniyan Hospital of Surat is believed to be one of them. It consisted of a large piece of ground enclosed by high walls and sub-divided into several courts (or wards) for accommodating of animals.

    Period of renaissance, saw a decline of Veterinary Science. Around 1791-99 (British Rule) due to large scale epidemics and economic losses some interest aroused in Veterinary science. The first veterinary training school came into existence in 1862 (in Pune). In 1882 the first veterinary college was established at Lahore; this was followed by establishment of other colleges viz. Bombay in 1884, in Bengal in 1893, in Madras in 1902 and in Bihar in 1930. At the time of independence there were 9 veterinary colleges in India.

    There are 33 veterinary colleges at present in the country. Two or three more are likely to be established during Fifth Five Year Plan period.

  3. Veterinary Council of India

The Veterinary Council of India is a statutory body of the Government of India framed under an Act of Parliament i.e. Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984 (52 of 1984). This is an Act to regulate Veterinary practice and Veterinary education. The Act stands extended to all the States of India except Tamilnadu and J&K as on date. Only those who possess recognised veterinary qualification and registered can practice in the country.

Qualification for admission to a Veterinary College in India

A candidate for admission to the Veterinary Course must have obtained not less than 50% of the aggregate marks in English, Physics, Chemistry & Biology, (I) at the qualifying examination (or at the higher examination) in the case of Veterinary College where the admissions are made on the basis of marks obtained at these examination or (ii) 50% of the total marks in Physics, Chemistry and Biology taken together at the competitive entrance examination where such admissions are held for selection.

In case of candidates belonging to the Schedule Castes/the Schedule Tribes or other special category of students as specified by the Government from time to time, marks required for admission shall be 10% less than that prescribed for general category. The candidates are normally admitted in colleges through competitive entrance examination.

Veterinary Council of India conducts an All India Common Entrance Examination for filling up of 15% of the total no. of seats of each Veterinary colleges of all States where the Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984 extends. This entrance exam is being held in the month of May each year. An advertisement to the effect would appear in leading newspapers and employment news.

The entrance examination of the State Universities are conducted after the qualifying (12th or Plus 2) exam is held by the respective Board/University/examining body of the States. Some States hold Joint Entrance Examination along with medical, engineering and other professional courses.

Duration of the Course

The duration of the undergraduate course i.e. Bachelor of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry (B.V.Sc. & A.H.) is five academic years including compulsory internship of six months duration. The degree awarded on completion of the training period is B.V.Sc. & A.H. (Bachelor of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry).

Subjects to be Studied :

  1. Veterinary Anatomy & Histology- Study of the gross structure of animal body and the microscopic structure of tissues of normal animal..
  2. Veterinary Physiology - Study of normal behaviour; functions of various systems of animal body & methods to monitor them
  3. Veterinary Biochemistry - Study of the chemical structure of tissues and body fluids and the mechanism of metabolism; molecular biology.
  4. Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology- Study of the action of various drugs, chemical and toxins on body and body functions.
  5. Veterinary Parasitology - Study of parasites that affects animals’ health.
  6. Veterinary Microbiology - Study of Bacteria, Virus, Fungus etc. that affects animals’ health
  7. Veterinary Pathology- Study of abnormal form & function of animal body.
  8. Veterinary Public Health - Study of environment on animals; animal diseases that affect human health and vice versa; animal product hygiene.
  9. Animal Nutrition - Study of feeds; feeding of animals, feed Processing, feed analogies.
  10. Animal Breeding & Genetics including - Study of animal genetics breed conservation and Biostatistics systems of breeding of animals.
  11. Livestock Production & Management- Study of systems of management of animals including management of pets, laboratory animals & zoo animals.
  12. Livestock Product Technology- Study of the harvesting of animal product ensuring minimum loss, proper conservation and maximum safety.
  13. Animal Reproduction Gynecology & Obstetrics- Study of Animal Reproduction, diseases and Obstetrics problems of reproductive organs; handling of abnormal birth.
  14. Veterinary Surgery & Radiology - anesthetising and operating animals, Use of X ray & ultrasound & other methods of diagnostis.
  15. Clinical Veterinary Medicine including Jurisprudence - Study of the diagnosis & treatment of non- surgical diseases, Veterinary Ethics & Jurisprudence. Study of Animal related laws & Ethics of professional service.
  16. Veterinary Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine - Teaches data & information generation on animals, animal health & disease. Prevention of problems based on information.
  17. Veterinary & Animal Husbandry Extension -Teaches sociology i.e. the community, their socio- economic profile, life style and methods communication with them for assessing their needs & problems; Veterinary public relation.

 

Job Opportunities for Veterinarians

 1. State Government

  1. Veterinary Hospitals/ Primary Veterinary Centers.
  2. Organised State Farms for managing livestock farms.
  3. Semen Banks/Sperm Stations – where quality bulls are kept.
  4. Poultry Farms – for managing egg farms, hatcheries, chick rearing units.
  5. Meat/Milk processing plants. – for supervising of hygienic collection & distribution of milk.
  6. Polyclinics – where specialised service like surgery, special diagnostics, specialised treatment etc. is given.
  7. Disease investigation centers – Survey disease profile and investigate any occurrence of a major disease.
  8. Biological products or vaccine institutions – prepare quality control & distribute vaccines & biologicals.
  9. Disease eradication schemes/ check posts/vaccination camps
  10. Public health labs – investigation of disease transmissible from animals to man and viseversa.

2. Centralised Sectors

  1. Army (Remount Veterinary Corps) – to train and look after Horses, dogs camel etc. in the forces.
  2. BSF/Police – to look after Horses, dogs, camels etc. in the forces.
  3. I.C.A.R. – co-ordination and funding of animal based research.
  4. Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying, Ministry of Agriculture - for administrative management & coordination of veterinary service.
  5. Quarantine Units – these are international check posts preventing entry of exotic disease like mad cow disease or fowl influenza.
  6. Central Farms – same as state farms & sperm stations; they also conduct trainings.
  1. Academic/Research/Extension Wing of Veterinary Colleges in State Agricultural

Universities, State Veterinary Universities, or Universities having Veterinary Faculty.

  1. Teaching/Research/Extension in Veterinary College/Institutes/Universities.
  2. Para Veterinary Staff training schools.
  3. Experimental & germ free animal facilities attached to Veterinary & Medical Institutions, Drug research institutions.
  4. Experimental Animal Unit, (Animal model preparation for experimentation etc.)
  5. Clinical, diagnostic & investigation centers attached to veterinary colleges and research institutes.
  1. Local Bodies/Municipalities/Panchayats
  1. Slaughter houses/Cattle Pounds/Public health Laboratories
  2. Zoos & wildlife centers
  3. Animal resource development under Panchayati Raj.
  1. Private Sector
  1. Pharmaceuticals
  2. Commercial dairy farms
  3. Commercial poultry farms
  4. Commercial breeding farms/hatchery etc.
  5. Race club, stud farms
  6. Veterinary instruments/equipment industry
  7. Biological products and vaccine product plants
  8. Insurance companies ,banks
  9. Corporate bodies eg. National Dairy Development Board, Milk board, Milk Unions etc
  10. Feed processing industry
  1. Self Employment
  1. Private Practice
  2. Consultancy
  3. Partner, Asstt. to a Practitioners.
  4. Entrepreneur in L.S. Farms, Poultry Farms etc.
  5. Diagnostic labs (Pathology, Biochemistry, Microbiology)
  6. X-ray, Ultra-sound facility